lunes, 15 de febrero de 2010

Ptolomeo XIII

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Ptolomeo XIII Teos Filópator[1] (Griego: Πτολεμαίος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ), faraón de la dinastía Ptolemaica de Egipto; gobernó de 51 a 47 a. C.

Contenido


Biografía [editar]

Hijo de Ptolomeo XII Auletes; cuando apenas contaba diez años de edad, tras morir su padre heredó el trono, conjuntamente con su hermana, con la que se desposó, la célebre Cleopatra VII, bajo la tutoría de Potino. Cleopatra, aspiraba a ocupar el poder en solitario, con la ayuda de su primer ministro Dioiketes, siguiendo el ejemplo de su madre y su hermana.

En el año 48 a. C. el eunuco Potino, intentó deponer a Cleopatra, estallando la guerra entre ambos hermanos. En esta situación llegó a Egipto Pompeyo, derrotado por César tras la batalla de Farsalia. Potino, para congraciarse con César y obtener su apoyo en la guerra contra Cleopatra, ordenó asesinar a Pompeyo, quien fue decapitado por soldados romanos que estaban establecidos alli pero que ya no seguian las ordenes de Roma o algun general romano.

Pero César no reaccionó como esperaban Potino y Ptolomeo, e hizo ejecutar al primero, restableciendo a Cleopatra de nuevo como reina, ofreciendo a Ptolomeo la isla de Chipre. Ante esto, Ptolomeo se alzó en armas, y César organizó un ejército de veinte mil hombres para sitiar Alejandría. Cesar venció el cerco, pero el fuego de las naves se extendió a la ciudad, incendiándose gran parte de la Biblioteca de Alejandría.[2] Finalmente derrotado, en su huida se ahogó en el Nilo.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

Q3
X1
V4 E23
Aa15
M17 M17 S29


Hiero Ca2.svg

p t u l m y s (Ptulmys)
Ptolomeo

Notas [editar]

  1. Los egiptólogos discrepan en el número de Lágidas que tras la muerte de Ptolomeo VI llegaron a reinar realmente y en el número que le dan a cada uno de ellos como rey. Para evitar la confusión que esto causa, los Ptolomeos se pueden identificar inequívocamente mediante los epítetos griegos que se les atribuyeron (Sóter II, Alejandro I, Neo-Dioniso, Teos Filópator, etc.).
  2. Gran enciclopedia cervantina. pp. 2471-2472.

Bibliografía [editar]

Alvar, Carlos; Alvar Ezquerra, Manuel; Sevilla Arroyo, Florencio: Gran enciclopedia cervantina. Editorial Castalia (2005). ISBN 8497402057


Predecesor:
Ptolomeo XII y Cleopatra VII
Faraón
con Cleopatra VII
Sucesor:
Cleopatra VII y Ptolomeo XIV

Categorías: Faraones |
Dinastía Ptolemaica


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File:PtolXIII 185.jpg
Depiction of Ptolemy XIII from the temple at Kom Ombo
Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by nickname. The number given here is the present consensus; but there has been some disagreement in the nineteenth century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower, but the same epithet.

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC–January 13, 47 BC?, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt.

Contents


[edit] Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil

Son of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII of Egypt (80–58 BC and 55–51 BC), he succeeded his father in the spring of 51 BC as co-ruler of Egypt by his marriage to his older sister Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69–30 BC). In October of 50 BC, Ptolemy XIII was promoted to senior ruler along with her, although the eunuch Pothinus acted as regent for him.

In the spring of 48 BC, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus attempted to depose Cleopatra VII due to her increasing status as Queen. Her face appeared on minted coins, for example, while Ptolemy XIII's name was omitted on official documents. Ptolemy intended to become sole ruler, with Pothinus acting as the power behind the throne.

[edit] Civil war

They managed to force her to flee to Syria, but she soon organized her own army and a civil war began in Egypt. Soon their other sister started to claim the throne as Arsinoe IV (48–47 BC), further complicating the situation.

At this point defeated Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive he was presented with the head of his deceased rival and former ally, but reportedly, instead of being pleased, reacted with disgust and ordered that Pompey's body be located and given a proper Roman funeral. Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated her marriage to Ptolemy XIII.

Still determined to depose Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII allied himself with Arsinoe IV. Jointly, they organized the factions of the army loyal to them against those loyal to Cleopatra VII and the relatively small part of his army that had accompanied Caesar to Egypt. The battle between the warring factions occurred in mid-December of 48 BC inside Alexandria itself, which suffered serious damage, including (according to some sources)[citation needed] the burning of some of the buildings which comprised the Library of Alexandria.

The arrival of Roman reinforcements from Pergamum gave the victory to Caesar and Cleopatra VII, forcing Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV to flee the city. Ptolemy XIII reportedly drowned on January 13, 47 BC while attempting to cross the Nile. Whether he was attempting to flee or was seeking negotiations remains uncertain from sources of the time. Cleopatra VII remained the unchallenged ruler of Egypt, although she named their younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (47–44 BC) her new co-ruler.

[edit] Ancestry

[edit] References

[edit] External links


Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
Born: ca. 62 BC Died: ca. 47 BC
Preceded by
Ptolemy XII Auletes and Cleopatra VII
Pharaoh of Egypt
51–ca. 47 BC
with Cleopatra VII
Succeeded by
Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIV



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