lunes, 15 de febrero de 2010

Ramsés IV


De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre


Heqamaatra-Setepenamón Ramsés-Heqamaatra-Meriamón, o Ramsés IV,[1] fue el tercer faraón de la dinastía XX del Imperio Nuevo de Egipto. Gobernó de c. 1153 a 1147 a. C.[2]

Archivo:Karnak Khonsou 080516.jpg
Bajorrelieve de Ramsés IV, en el templo de Jonsu, en Karnak.

Su Nombre de Trono, Heqamaatra, significa "Gobernante de Justicia como Ra."

Era el quinto hijo de Ramsés III, pero accedió al trono cuando tenía unos cuarenta años, ya que sus cuatro hermanos mayores habían muerto previamente. Su esposa principal fue la reina Tentopet.


Proyectos edificatorios [editar]

Diseñó una gran campaña edificatoria, a escala de la Ramsés II, duplicando el tamaño de las cuadrillas de trabajadores en Deir el-Medina a un total de 120 hombres, envió varias grandes expediciones a las canteras de Uadi Hammamat y el Sinaí.

Sin embargo, no vivió lo suficiente para lograr sus metas. En su programa incluyó una grandiosa ampliación del templo de Jonsu en Karnak, restaurado por su padre, y la construcción de un gran Templo Funerario cerca del templo de Hatshepsut.

Documentos de su época [editar]

Papiros de Turín: 1879 - 1899 - 1969, de Uadi Hammamat. El mapa geológico-topográfico más antiguo conocido

Los documentos más importantes que perduran del reinado de este faraón son el Papiro Harris I, honrando la memoria de su padre, Ramsés III, y también de su abuelo Sethnajh relatando sus logros y sus numerosos obsequios a los templos de Egipto, y los Papiros de Turín 1879 - 1899 - 1969, el primer mapa geológico conocido.

Tumbas reales [editar]

Después de un corto reinado de seis años muere Ramsés IV y es enterrado en la tumba KV2 del Valle de los Reyes. Su esposa principal, la reina Tentopet, fue enterrada en la QV74.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:

S34 m H6 nb
Z3 W19 i t
V28 A52

k3 nḫt ˁnḫ m m3ˁt nb ḥ3bu sd my it.f pḥt t3 ṯnn
(Kenanjmemaat Nebjebusemitefptahtachenen)
Toro Poderoso que vive en la Justicia (Maat),
Señor del Heb Sed, como su padre Ptah Tachenen
Nombre de Nebty:
k I6
G45 Z7
Z3 Z3 Z3
mk kmt uˁf pḏt 9 (Mekemet Uafpedyet)
Protector de Egipto, el que derrota a los extranjeros
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
wsr s M4 M4 M4 G36
Aa1 t
usr rnput ur nḫtu (Userenpetuernajt)
Poderoso durante años, grande en el triunfo
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 S38 C10 C12 U21

Hiero Ca2.svg

hq3 m3ˁt rˁ stp n imn (Heqamaatra Setepenamón)

Gobernante de Justicia (Maat) como Ra,
Elegido de Amón

Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 C2 C12 N36 S38 F31

Hiero Ca2.svg

rˁ ms s.u ḥq3 m3ˁt mr imn
(Ramsés Heqamaatra Meriamón)
Engendrado por Ra, Señor de Justicia (Maat) como Ra,
Amado de Amón
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 C2 C12 N36 H6 F31s

Hiero Ca2.svg

rˁ ms s.u ḥq3 m3ˁt mr imn (Ramsés Maatra Meriamón)
Engendrado por Ra, el de la Justicia (Maat) como Ra,
Amado de Amón

(Templo de Jonsu en Karnak)

Notas [editar]

  1. Otras grafías de su nombre: Hekmaatra, Hekmaatre, Hekmaetre, Heqamaat, Heqamaatra, Heqamaatre, Ousermaatre, Rames, Ramesses, Ramose, Ramosis, Setepenamon, Setepenamun, Usermaatre, Usermaetre.
  2. Cronología según Shaw y Málek.

Enlaces externos [editar]

Ramsés III
Dinastía XX
Ramsés V
Categorías: Faraones | Dinastía XX | Fallecidos en el siglo XII a. C.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Ramesses IV
Also written Ramses and Rameses
Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting  his enemies.
Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting his enemies.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1155-1149 BC, 20th Dynasty
Predecessor Ramesses III
Successor Ramesses V
Consort(s) Duatentopet
Children Ramesses V
Died 1149 BC
Burial KV2
Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him.[2] His promotion to crown prince:

'is suggested by his appearance (suitably entitled) in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22 [of his father's reign]. (the date is mentioned in the poem inscribed there)'[3]

As his father's chosen successor the Prince employed three distinctive titles: "Hereditary Prince", "Royal scribe" and "Generalissimo"; the latter two of his titles are mentioned in a text at Amenhotep III's temple at Soleb[4] and all three royal titles appear on a lintel now in Florence, Italy.[5] As heir-apparent he took on increasing responsibilities; for instance, in Year 27 of his father's reign, he is depicted appointing a certain Amenemopet to the important position of Third Prophet of Amun in the latter's TT 148 tomb.[6][7] Amenemope's Theban tomb also accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles.[8] Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne. His rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC.


[edit] Projects

At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building campaign program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai.[9] The Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition—dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27—consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht.[10] The scribes who composed the text conscientiously noted that this figure excluded 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list."[11] Consequently, once this omitted figure is added to the tally of 8,368 men who survived the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 9,268 men perished during this massive endeavour for a mortality rate of almost 10%. This gives an indication of the harshness of life in Egypt's stone quarries. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more.[12] Other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances.

Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines the Sinai; a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit el-Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, Sobekhotep, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise (on) his fourth expedition."[13] This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V.[14] Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el-Khadim.[15] The stela reads:

Year 5, second month of Shomu [ie: summer]. The sending by His Majesty build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise, by Panefer, the Scribe of the Commands of the Army, son of Pairy, justified.[16]

While little is known regarding the route that the mining missions took from Egypt to Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, AJ Peden who wrote a biography of Ramesses IV's reign in 1994 states that there were "two obvious routes" to reach this site:

"The first was a straightforward march from a Delta base, such as Memphis, east south-east and then south into Sinai. Surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented formidable logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted. This would involve a departure from the Delta to a site near the modern port of Suez. From here they could have proceeded by boat to the ports of Abu Zenima or El-Markha on the west coast of the Sinai peninsula and from there it is a short journey inland of only a day or two to the actual site of Serabit el-Khadim."[17]

[edit] Attestations

File:Karnak Khonsou 080515.jpg
Relief of Ramesses IV at the Temple of Khonsu in Karnak

Ramesses IV is attested by his aforementioned building activity at Wadi Hammamat and Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai as well as several papyri and even one obelisk. The creation of a royal cult in the Temple of Hathor is known under his reign at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai while Papyrus Mallet (or P. Louvre 1050) dates to Years 3 and 4 of his reign.[18] Papyrus Mallet is a six column text dealing partly with agricultural affairs; its first column lists the prices for various commodities between Year 31 of Ramesses III until Year 3 of Ramesses IV.[19] The final four columns contain a memorandum of 2 letters composed by the Superintendent of Cattle of the Estate of Amen-Re, Bakenkhons, to several mid-level administrators and their subordinates.[19] Meanwhile, surviving monuments of Ramesses IV in the Delta consists of an obelisk recovered in Cairo and a pair of his cartouches found on a pylon gateway both originally from Heliopolis.[18]

The most important document to survive from this pharaoh's rule is Papyrus Harris I, which honours the life of his father, Ramesses III, by listing the latter's many accomplishments and gifts to the temples of Egypt, and the Turin papyrus, the earliest known geologic map. Ramesses IV was perhaps the last New Kingdom king to engage in large-scale monumental building after his father as "there was a marked decline in temple building even during the longer reigns of Ramesses IX and VI. The only apparent exception was the attempt of Ramesses V and VI to continue the vast and uncompleted mortuary temple of Ramesses IV at the Assasif."[20]

[edit] Death

Despite Ramesses IV's many endeavours for the gods and his prayer to Osiris—preserved on a Year 4 stela at Abydos—that "thou shalt give me the great age with a long reign [as my predecessor]", the king did not live long enough to accomplish his ambitious goals.[21]

After a short reign of about six and a half years, Ramesses IV died and was buried in tomb KV2 in the Valley of the Kings. His mummy was found in the royal cache of Amenhotep II's tomb KV35 in 1898.[21] His chief wife is Queen Duatentopet or Tentopet who was buried in QV74. His son, Ramesses V, would succeed him to the throne.[22]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994, p.167
  2. ^ Jacobus Van Dijk, 'The Amarna Period and the later New Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, Oxford University Press paperback, 2002, p.306
  3. ^ A. J. Peden, The Reign of Ramesses IV, Aris & Phillips Ltd, 1994. p.2
  4. ^ KRI, V 372: 16
  5. ^ KRI, V, 373 (3)
  6. ^ G.A. Gaballa & K.A. Kitchen, "Amenemope, His Tomb and Family," MDAIK 37 (1981), pp.164-180
  7. ^ Ramesses IV by J. Dunn
  8. ^ Gaballa & Kitchen, pp.172-173 & 176-177
  9. ^ Van Dijk, pp.306-307
  10. ^ KRI, VI, 12-14
  11. ^ Peden, p.89
  12. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)p. 133
  13. ^ KRI, VI, 85-86
  14. ^ Peden, p.28
  15. ^ PM, VIII, 347-365
  16. ^ KRI, VI, 29:4
  17. ^ Peden, pp.28-29
  18. ^ a b Peden, p.33
  19. ^ a b Peden, p.72
  20. ^ Peden, p.81
  21. ^ a b Clayton, Chronicle, p.167
  22. ^ Van Dijk, p.307

[edit] External links

Categories: Pharaohs of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt

Category:Ramses IV

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository


<> - Ramses V >

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III but was appointed as the crown prince around Year 22 of his father's reign since all four of his older brothers predeceased him.[2] Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, he is believed to have been in his forties when he took the throne. His reign has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1154 to 1148 BC.


This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.


  • [+] KV2 (1 P, 7 F)


Media in category "Ramses IV"

The following 22 files are in this category, out of 22 total.

Categories: Pharaohs | 20th dynasty of Egypt | 1150s BC | 1140s BC
En otros idiomas

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario

Correo Vaishnava

Archivo del blog