lunes, 15 de febrero de 2010

Ptolomeo XII

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Archivo:Ptolemy XII Auletes Louvre Ma3449.jpg
Ptolomeo XII, Louvre.

Ptolomeo XII Neo Dioniso[1] (Griego: Πτολεμαίος Νέος Διόνυσος) (h.11251 a. C.) más conocido como Auletes (el flautista), y también como Nothos (el bastardo). Faraón de la dinastía Ptolemaica del Antiguo Egipto (8058 a. C. y 5551 a. C.).

Contenido


Introducción [editar]

La dinastía Ptolemaica descendía de una larga dinastía de soberanos macedonios que habían reinado sobre los egipcios desde la muerte del conquistador Alejandro Magno y a los que se conocía con el nombre de Ptolomeos Lágidas. Parece que fue, Ptolomeo XII, un mal gobernante y un rey malvado con su pueblo. Por ello, no fue muy respetado y su sobrenombre «aulettes», que en griego significa «flautista», era porque, según se decía, Ptolomeo XII le dedicaba más tiempo a la música que a gobernar. En efecto, Ptolomeo XII era un gran aficionado a las fiestas y los banquetes, durante los que solía emborracharse y exhibirse con la flauta. Frente a las dificultades que asolaban el país, el faraón manifestaba una gran despreocupación y era habitual que su respuesta fuera la práctica intensa de la corrupción. Además, vivía atemorizado con la posibilidad de que le destronasen y los romanos explotaban este temor recordándole periódicamente que existía un supuesto testamento de su predecesor, Ptolomeo XI, en el que éste legaba Egipto a Roma.

Biografía [editar]

Ptolemaios Neos Dionisos Filopator Filadelfos era hijo de Ptolomeo IX Sóter II y de madre desconocida, y esta condición de hijo bastardo hizo que durante todo su reinado hubiera de buscar fuertes apoyos en Roma (potencia hegemónica del momento) para contrarrestar esa insuficiente legitimidad regia.

En 103 a. C. fue enviado por su abuela, la reina Cleopatra III, junto con su hermano y su primo Alejandro II, a la isla de Cos para refugiarse. En 88 a. C. fue capturado por Mitrídates VI del Ponto, y según Cicerón en 80 a. C. se encontraba en Siria. Ese mismo año, tras las violentas muertes de Berenice III (su hermanastra) y Ptolomeo XI Alejandro II, los dos últimos miembros completamente legítimos de la dinastía en Egipto, el pueblo de Alejandría le ofreció el trono, que aceptó.

Al poco de llegar al país casó con Cleopatra V Trifena, que quizá fuera su hermana (hecho frecuente en los matrimonios regios ptolemaicos). En 76 a. C. se celebró su ceremonia de coronación mediante los ritos egipcios. A pesar de que tuvo lugar en Alejandría y no en Menfis (como era tradicional), la presencia del sumo sacerdote de esta ciudad indica que contó con el apoyo del poderoso clero egipcio, que a cambio obtuvo grandes donativos del rey.

En 65 a. C. la facción popular cuestionó en el Senado romano la legitimidad del faraón y planteó incluso la posibilidad de que Alejandro II hubiera pretendido legar Egipto al pueblo de Roma. Los optimates se opusieron a la anexión. Mientras tanto Auletes intentaba recabar el apoyo del cónsul y general Cneo Pompeyo Magno enviándole ayuda militar a Judea. También sobornó a Julio César (uno de los cónsules del año 59) con 6.000 talentos, a cambio de lo cual éste hizo aprobar una ley que reconocía su legitimidad.

A pesar de dicho reconocimiento, Roma no incluyó en él a Chipre, que se anexionó en 58 a. C. ante la pasividad de Auletes. La isla estaba gobernada por su hermano, que al ver que aquel no le defendía se suicidó.

La pérdida de Chipre provocó en Egipto un airado levantamiento popular contra Auletes, que viajó a Roma en busca de ayuda militar para sofocarlo. Quedaron como regentes su esposa Cleopatra y la hija mayor de ambos Berenice IV. Tras la muerte de la primera en 57 los alejandrinos proclamaron reina única a la segunda y enviaron representantes a Roma para defender su legitimitad ante el Senado, que debía pronunciarse al respecto. Auletes, que residía en casa de Pompeyo, intentaba ganarse el respaldo de los senadores mediante cuantiosos sobornos que le obligaron a aumentar los impuestos en Egipto e incluso a contraer deudas con prestamistas romanos. Organizó además el asesinato de delegados alejandrinos. A fines de 57 a. C. el Senado aprobó una resolución favorable a Auletes, pero un augurio[2] desanconsejó otorgarle ayuda activa. El rey marchó entonces a Éfeso.

En 55, con la promesa de pagarle 10.000 talentos, Auletes consiguió el apoyo de Aulo Gabinio, procónsul de Siria y lugarteniente de Pompeyo, y recuperó el trono de Egipto con un ejército romano. La caballería de este ejército estaba dirigida por un oficial de veinticuatro años, Marco Antonio que, con el tiempo, acabaría siendo soberano de Egipto junto a otra de las hijas de Auletes, Cleopatra VII. Luego de entrar vencedor en Alejandría, mando ejecutar a su hija Berenice. El volumen de las deudas que había contraído era tal que tuvo que nombrar a su mayor acreedor romano, un banquero llamado Rabirius, ministro de finanzas. Este pensaba asegurarse así la devolución de al menos la cantidad prestada, pero al año siguiente tuvo que huir del país a causa de una revuelta popular.

Poco antes de morir (51 a. C.) Auletes nombró corregentes a sus hijos: la famosa Cleopatra VII, que contaba dieciocho años y Ptolomeo XIII de apenas diez. También les designó herederos del reino bajo la custodia de Roma. Por supuesto, para poder gobernar juntos, tuvieron que casarse según lo permitía la ley de los Lágidas.

Archivo:PtolSmash 212.jpg
Bajorrelieve de Ptolomeo XII (Ptulmys Anjdyet Meryptahast), en el templo de Edfu.

Testimonios de su época [editar]

  • El santuario de Triphis en Atribis (Wannina) fue agrandado (Arnold 1999:211 - 212)[3]
  • El templo de Hathor en Dendera fue substituido por un templo nuevo (Arnold 1999:212 - 216)
  • Trabajo de decoración en la primera puerta del templo de Ptah (Arnold 1999:216)
  • Muro nuevo de ladrillo con puerta para el templo de Hathor en Deir el-Medina (Arnold 1999:216)
  • Trabajos en el templo de Horus en Edfu (Arnold 1999:216 - 220)
  • Trabajos en el templo en Kom Ombo (Arnold 1999:220)
  • Trabajos en File (Arnold 1999:220 - 221)
  • Naos de granito para el templo del Isis en Dabod (Arnold 1999:221)

Titulatura [editar]

  • Nombre de Horus: Hununefer Benermerut Tyenisunebetrejythenakaef Duanefjnumshepsershesepenefjatemhedyet Sensenensehenuemhaauminedyitef Tyehenmesuthernesetitef-mihorkanajt Itypesedyemtameri-mihepuanj Redinefhabusedashau-ueru-miptahtatyenenitnecheru
  • Nombre de Nebty: Uerpehti Jenteshneheh Semenhepu-midyehuty-aa-aa
  • Nombre de Hor-Nub: Aaybity Nebqenunajt-misaaset
Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.png


Q3
R8 F44
N35
W24 X1 Z4
N35
N41
D40
Q3
X1
V28 U21
N35
D4
Aa11
W24 C2 C12 S42 S34


Hiero Ca2.svg



iuˁ n p3 nṯr nḥm stp n ptḥ ir mȝˁ.t n rˁ sḫm ˁnḫ imn
(Iuaenpanechernehem Setepenptah Irmaatenra Sejemanjamon)
Heredero del dios Sóter, Elegido de Ptah, Quien lleva la justicia de Ra, Imagen viviente de Amón
(Templo de Kom Ombo) [1]
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

Q3
X1
V4 E23
U31
M17 M17 S29 S34 D&t&N17 Q3
X1
V28 Q1 X1
H8
N36


Hiero Ca2.svg

p t u l m y s anḫ ḏt mr ptḥ ˁst
(Ptulmys Anjdyet Meryptahast)
Ptolomeo, sempiterno, amado de Isis y Ptah
(Templo de Kom Ombo) [2]

Notas [editar]

  1. Los egiptólogos discrepan en el número de lágidas que tras la muerte de Ptolomeo VI llegaron a reinar realmente y en el número que le dan a cada uno de ellos como rey. Para evitar la confusión que esto causa, los Ptolomeos se pueden identificar inequívocamente mediante los epítetos griegos que se les atribuyeron (Sóter II, Alejandro I, Filópator, Neo-Dioniso, etc.).
  2. Los augures romanos, sacerdotes de Júpiter, tenían gran influencia en las decisiones políticas a tomar.
  3. Arnold 1999. Dieter Arnold. Temples of the Last Pharaos. New York/Oxford.

Bibliografía [editar]

Referencias [editar]

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Ptolomeo XI
Faraón Primer reinado con
Cleopatra V y Cleopatra VI
Sucesor:
Cleopatra V y Berenice IV
Predecesor:
Berenice IV
Faraón Segundo reinado con
Cleopatra VII
Sucesor:
Cleopatra VII y Ptolomeo XIII


Categorías: Faraones | Dinastía Ptolemaica


Ptolemy XII AuletesOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Contenido





File:PtolSmash 212.jpg
Ptolemy XII smashing his enemies with a royal mace. Relief from the first pylon in the temple at Edfu
Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by nickname. The number given here is the present consensus; but there has been some disagreement in the nineteenth century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower, but the same epithet.

Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (117–51 BC) (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónusos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos), New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) was more commonly known as "Auletes" (The Flutist) (Αὐλητής, Aulētḗs), or "Nothos" (The Bastard) (Νόθος, Nóthos). Auletes means pipes-player, and refers to his chubby cheeks, like the inflated cheeks of a pipe-player.

Contents


[edit] Early Life

Ptolemy XII was a Hellenistic ruler of Macedonian descent. He is assumed to be an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX Soter since it can not be confirmed if he is the son of Cleopatra IV of Egypt. [1] His reign as king was interrupted by a general rebellion that resulted in his exile from 58-55 BC. Thus, Ptolemy XII ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC and from 55 BC until his death in 51 BC. Ptolemy XII was generally described as a weak, self-indulgent man, a drunkard, and a music lover. [2]

[edit] Family & Children

  • Ptolemy had two wives, the first bore him 3 children:
  1. Cleopatra VI
  2. Berenice IV
  3. Cleopatra VII
  • The second wife (whose name remains unknown) also bore him 3 children:
  1. Arsinoe IV
  2. Ptolemy XIII
  3. Ptolemy XIV

[edit] His first reign (80–58 BC)

In 80 BC, Ptolemy XII's predecessor Ptolemy XI was removed by the Egyptian population from the throne of Egypt after the king had killed his coregent and step mother Berenice III. [3] When Ptolemy XI died without a male heir, the only available male descendents of the Ptolemy I lineage were the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX by an unknown Greek concubine [4] . The boys were living in exile in Sinope, at the court of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus. As the eldest of the boys Ptolemy XII was proclaimed king as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos and married his sister, Tryphaena. Ptolemy XII was coregent with his daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaena and his wife Cleopatra V Tryphaena.

However, Ptolemy XI had left the throne to Rome in his will therefore Ptolemy XII was not the legitimate successor. Nevertheless, Rome did not challenge Ptolemy XII's succession because the Senate was unwilling to acquire an Egyptian expansion. [5]

Ptolemy XII's personal cult name (Neos Dionysos) earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes (flute player) — as we learn from Strabo's writing (Strabo XVII, 1, 11):

Now all at kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, have administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practised the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants.

File:Edfoe Pylon.JPG
The first pylon at Edfu Temple was decorated by Ptolemy XII in 57 BC with figures of himself smiting the enemy.

Before Ptolemy XII's reign, the geographical distance between Rome and Egypt resulted in an indifferent attitude towards each other. Nevertheless, Egyptians asked the Romans to settle dynastic conflicts [6] During his reign, Ptolemy XII attempted to secure his own fate and the fate of his dynasty by means of a pro-Roman policy. In 63 BC, it appeared that Pompey would emerge as the leader of a Roman struggle thus Ptolemy sought to form a patron-client relationship with the Roman by sending him riches and extending an invitation to Alexandria. Pompey accepted the riches but refused the invitation. [7] Nevertheless, a patron relationship with a leader in Rome did not guarantee his permanence on the throne, thus Ptolemy XII soon afterwards travelled to Rome to negotiate a bribe for an official recognition of his kingship. After paying a bribe of six thousand talents to Julius Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (a foedus) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani). [8]

[edit] Exile in Rome (58–55 BC)

In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, thereby upsetting the Egyptian population to start a rebellion. Egyptians were already aggravated by heavy taxes (to pay for the Roman bribes) and a substantial increase in the cost of living. Ptolemy XII fled to Rome, possibly with his daughter Cleopatra VII, in search of safety. [9] His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. She ruled as coregent with her sister Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. A year after Ptolemy XII's exile, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena died and Berenice ruled alone over Alexandria from 57 to 56BC.[10]

From Rome, Ptolemy XII prosecuted his restitution but met opposition with certain members of the Senate. Ptolemy XII's old ally Pompey housed the exiled king and his daughter and argued on behalf of Ptolemy's restoration in the Senate. During this time, Roman creditors realized that they would not get the return on their loans to the Egyptian king without his restoration.[11] Thus in 57 BC, pressure from the Roman public forced the Senate's decision to restore Ptolemy.[12] However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king since the Sybylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur.[13]

Egyptians heard rumors of Rome's possible intervention and disliked the idea of their exiled king's return. Cassius Dio reported that a group of one hundred men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII's restoration, but Ptolemy had their leader (a philosopher named Dion) poisoned and most of the other protesters killed before they reached Rome to plead their desires. [14]

[edit] Restoration (55–51 BC)

Ptolemy XII finally recovered his throne by paying Aulus Gabinius 10,000 talents to invade Egypt in 55 BC. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Aulus Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced. [15]

The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown; the earliest possible date of restoration is 4 January 55 BC and the latest possible date was 24 June the same year. Nevertheless, upon entering the palace, Ptolemy had Berenice and her supporters executed. From then on, he reigned until he fell ill in 51 BC. Around two thousand Roman soldiers and mercenaries, the so-called Gabiniani, were stationed in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy XII's authority on the throne. In exchange, Rome was able to exert its power over the restored king.[16] His daughter, Cleopatra VII became his coregent.

The moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the return on their investments but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. Learning from previous mistakes, Ptolemy XII shifted popular resentment of tax increases from the king to a Roman that Ptolemy XII had placed in charge of debt repayment.[clarification needed] Ptolemy, also, permitted a debasing of the coinage as an attempt to repay the loans. Near the end of Ptolemy's reign, the value of Egyptian coins dropped to about fifty percent of its value at the beginning of his reign.[17]

Before his death, Ptolemy XII chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. In his will, he declared that she and her brother Ptolemy XIII should rule the kingdom together. To safeguard his interests, he made the people of Rome executors of his will. Since the Senate was busy with its own affairs, Pompey (as Ptolemy XII's ally) approved the will. [18]

“Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. To achieve this goal he was prepared to sacrifice much: the loss of rich Ptolemaic lands, most of his wealth and even, according to Cicero, the very dignity on which the mystique of kingship rested when he appeared before the Roman people as a mere supplicant.” [19]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 28.
  2. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 34.
  3. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 33.
  4. ^ A. Clayton Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign by Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ( London: Thames and Hudson, 1994) ISBN 0-500-05074-0.
  5. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 33.
  6. ^ Sinai-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 307.
  7. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 35.
  8. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 316.
  9. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra ' (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 37.
  10. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” HIstoria 46:3 (1997): 324.
  11. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 323.
  12. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra ' (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 39.
  13. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra ' (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 40.
  14. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 325.
  15. ^ Ernle Bradford, Classic Biography: Cleopatra ' (Toronto: The Penguin Groups, 2000), 43.
  16. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 388.
  17. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 332-4.
  18. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 339.
  19. ^ Siani-Davies, Mary. “Ptolemy and the Romans” Historia 46:3 (1997): 339.

[edit] References

  • Strabo 12.3.34 and 17.1.11
  • Dio Cassius 39.12 - 39.14, 39.55 - 39.58

[edit] External links


Preceded by:
Ptolemy XI
Ptolemaic King of Egypt
First Reign
with Cleopatra V and Cleopatra VI
Succeeded by:
Cleopatra V and Berenice IV
Berenice IV Ptolemaic King of Egypt
Second Reign
with Cleopatra VII
Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII

En otros idiomas

Category:Ptolemy XII Auletes

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Ptolemy XII Neo Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos - Auletes (Flutist)

  • Iuaenpanetjernetinehem Setepenptah Irmaatenre Sekhemankhamun

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