lunes, 15 de febrero de 2010

Ramsés I

Ramsés IOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre


Contenido





Archivo:StatueHeadOfParamessu-RamessesI  MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Ramsés I, Paramesu. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Men-Pehty-Ra Ra-Mesesu, o Ramsés I,[1] fue el fundador de la XIX dinastía, perteneciente al Imperio Nuevo de Egipto. Las fechas de su corto reinado se estiman de c. 1294 a 1295 a. C.[2]

Contenido


Biografía [editar]

Originalmente llamado Paramesu, procedía de una prestigiosa familia militar del entorno de la ciudad de Avaris, en la región del delta del Nilo. Fue un militar de carrera, inicialmente el jefe de los arqueros, empleo que heredó de su padre, de nombre Sethy, y llegó a general del ejército real. Ramsés encontró el favor de Horemheb, faraón de la por entonces tumultuosa XVIII dinastía, quien designó a Ramsés como su visir, y por tanto, el segundo hombre más poderoso del reino. De sus gustos se sabe que su color favorito era el azul. Tuvo un hermano llamado Ozai, el cual murió al nacer, por lo que no es reconocido por la historia.

Antes de morir, Horemheb vinculó a su chaty al trono, quien también era ya un hombre de edad, pero con descendencia masculina. Ramsés I, asoció inmediatamente a su hijo al trono, para servirle como corregente; éste posteriormente sería el faraón Sethy I. En nombre de su padre, Sethy emprendió varias operaciones militares y, en particular, una tentativa de recuperar las posesiones perdidas de Egipto en Siria. Por lo que Ramsés aparece ocupado en proyectos domésticos: lo más memorable fue poder terminar la construcción del segundo templo en Karnak, iniciado por su precursor. No obstante, dada la edad de aquel hombre, su reinado no fue más que una época de trasición entre el de Horemheb y el de Sethy I.

El viejo faraón estaba casado cuando subió al trono, y nombró Gran Esposa Real a Sitra, también de avanzada edad, que tuvo el honor de ser la fundadora del Valle de las Reinas, donde a partir de entonces fueron enterradas las grandes esposas reales y príncipes. Es improbable que Ramsés I fuese el marido de la oscura Tanedyemy, presunta única hija de Horemheb, y quizás, para vincular a las dos dinastías, se casase con el rey más joven, Sethy I.

Cuando Ramsés subió al trono su hijo Sethy ya era un hombre maduro que tuvo las tareas de gobierno y su nieto Ramsés II tenia posiblemente diez años. Ramsés murió después de gobernar por un breve período de 16 meses, en la época de ramses se murió en la en el sigly le sucede su hijo y corregente. Lo enterraron en el Valle de los Reyes. Su tumba fue descubierta por Giovanni Belzoni en 1817 y se designó KV16; es pequeña y da la impresión de ser haber sido terminada precipitadamente. La momia de Ramsés I ha sufrido grandes avatares a lo largo de la historia, y no se sabe con certeza si es en realidad la que se le ha atribuido habitualmente, originaria del escondrijo de Deir el-Bahari.

Testimonios de su época [editar]

Su nombre figura en varias en la época de mi abuelo inscripciones y estelas:[3]

  • Inscripción en una roca en Elefantina (Petrie 1888: pl. XI nº.302)
  • Estela en Sinaí (Kitchen 1975:1)
  • Estela encontrado en Buhen (Kitchen 1975:2)
  • La estela de la donación encontrado en Karnak norte (Kitchen 1975:4)

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


E2
D40
M13 M23 t i i Y1
Z2


Srxtail2.GIF
k3 nḫt u3ḏ nsyt (Kanajt Uadynesyt)
Toro potente de próspera majestad
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
N28
D36
Y1V m&t M23 A44 W19 i t
Aa15
U15
ḫˁ m nsu mi itm (Jaemnesumitem)
Imagen de Ra, semejante a Atum
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
s mn
n
U32 Aa11
M3
Aa1
smn m3ˁt ḫt tauy (Semenmaat Jettauy)
Imagen de Maat en las Dos Tierras
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 mn F9 t
t


Hiero Ca2.svg

mn pḥty rˁ (Menpehtyra)
Eterna es la fuerza de Ra
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 F31 s M23 G43


Hiero Ca2.svg

rˁ ms su (Ramsés)
Engendrado por Ra


Notas [editar]

  1. Nombre del faraón según los epítomes de Manetón:
    Rameses (Flavio Josefo, Contra Apión). Situado en la dinastía XVIII.
    Rameses (Flavio Josefo, de Teófilo). Situado en la dinastía XVIII.
    Rameses (Julio Africano, versión de Sincelo). Situado en la dinastía XVIII.
    (omitido) (Eusebio de Cesarea, versión de Sincelo)
    (omitido) (Eusebio de Cesarea, versión armenia)

    Otras grafías de su nombre: Kanajt, Khanekhet, Menpehtira, Menpehtire, Menpehtyre, Paramessu, Paramses, Piramessou, Rames, Rameses, Ramesses, Rammeses, Ramose, Ramosis.

  2. Cronología según Shaw, Kitchen, Grimal y Málek.
  3. «king Ramses I».

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Horemheb
Faraón
Dinastía XIX
Sucesor:
Seti I


Ramesses IOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Contenido





Ramesses I
Stone head carving of Paramessu  (Ramesses I), originally part of a statue depicting him as a scribe. On  display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Stone head carving of Paramessu (Ramesses I), originally part of a statue depicting him as a scribe. On display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1292–1290 BC or 1295–1294 BC, 19th Dynasty
Predecessor Horemheb
Successor Seti I
Consort(s) Queen Sitre
Children Seti I
Father Seti
Died 1290 BC
Burial KV16

Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Ramses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292-1290 BC is frequently cited[3] as well as 1295-1294 BC[4]. While Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th Dynasty, in reality his brief reign marked the transition between the reign of Horemheb who had stabilised Egypt and the rule of the powerful Pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular Seti I and Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt up to new heights of imperial power.

Contents



[edit] Origins

Originally called Pa-ra-mes-su, Ramesses I was of non-royal birth, being born into a noble military family from the Nile delta region, perhaps near the former Hyksos capital of Avaris, or from Tanis. He was a son of a troop commander called Seti. He had five sisters and three brothers who were named Pay, Minamon and Hawnefer. His uncle Khaemwaset, an army officer married Tamwadjesy, the matron of the Harem of Amun, who was a relative of Huy, the Viceroy of Kush, an important state post. This shows the high status of Ramesses' family. Ramesses I found favor with Horemheb, the last pharaoh of the tumultuous Eighteenth dynasty, who appointed the former as his Vizier. Ramesses also served as the High Priest of Amun – as such, he would have played an important role in the restoration of the old religion following the Amarna heresy of a generation earlier, under Akhenaten.

Horemheb himself had been a nobleman from outside the immediate royal family, who rose through the ranks of the Egyptian army to serve as the royal advisor to Tutankhamun and Ay and, ultimately, Pharaoh. Since Horemheb was childless, he ultimately chose Ramesses to be his heir in the final years of his reign presumably because Ramesses I was both an able administrator and had a son (Seti I) and a grandson (the future Ramesses II) to succeed him and thus avoid any succession difficulties.

Upon his accession, Ramesses assumed a prenomen, or royal name, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. When transliterated, the name is mn-pḥty-r‘, which is usually interpreted as Menpehtyre, meaning "Established by the strength of Ra". However, he is better known by his nomen, or personal name. This is transliterated as r‘-ms-sw, and is usually realised as Ramessu or Ramesses, meaning 'Ra bore him'. Already an old man when he was crowned, Ramesses appointed his son, the later pharaoh Seti I, to serve as the Crown Prince and chosen successor. Seti was charged with undertaking several military operations during this time– in particular, an attempt to recoup some of Egypt's lost possessions in Syria. Ramesses appears to have taken charge of domestic matters: most memorably, he completed the second pylon at Karnak Temple, begun under Horemheb.

[edit] Death

File:Abydos chapel reliefs of Ramesses I by John Campana.jpg
Reliefs from the Abydos chapel of Ramesses I. The chapel was specifically built and dedicated by Seti I in memory of his late father.

Ramesses I enjoyed a very brief reign, as evidenced by the general paucity of contemporary monuments mentioning him: the king had little time to build any major buildings in his reign and was hurriedly buried in a small and hastily finished tomb.[5] The Egyptian priest Manetho assigns him a reign of 16 months but this pharaoh certainly ruled Egypt for a minimum of 17 months based on his highest known date which is a Year 2 II Peret day 20 (Louvre C57) stela which ordered the provision of new endowments of food and priests for the Temple of Ptah within the Egyptian fortress of Buhen.[6] Jürgen von Beckerath observes that Ramesses I died just 5 months later—in June 1290 BC—since his son Seti I succeeded to power on III Shemu day 24.[7] Ramesses I's only known action was to order the provision of endowments for the aforementioned Nubian temple at Buhen and "the construction of a chapel and a temple (which was to be finished by his son) at Abydos."[8] The aged Ramesses was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb, discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817 and designated KV16, is small in size and gives the impression of having been completed with haste. Joyce Tyldesley states that Ramesses I's tomb consisted of a single corridor and one unfinished room whose

walls, after a hurried coat of plaster, were painted to show the king with his gods, with Osiris allowed a prominent position. The red granite sarcophagus too was painted rather than carved with inscriptions which, due to their hasty preparation, included a number of unfortunate errors."[9]

Seti I, his son, and successor, later built a small chapel (or temple) with fine reliefs in memory of deceased father Ramesses I at Abydos. In 1911, John Pierpont Morgan donated several exquisite reliefs from this chapel to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.[10]

[edit] Rediscovery and repatriation

According to current theory, his mummy was stolen by the Abu-Rassul family of grave robbers and brought to North America around 1860 by Dr. James Douglas. It was then placed in the Niagara Museum and Daredevil Hall of Fame in Ontario, Canada. Ramesses I remained there, his identity unknown, next to other curiosities and so-called freaks of nature for more than 130 years. When the owner of the museum decided to sell his property, Canadian businessman William Jamieson purchased the contents of the museum. In 1999, Jamieson sold the Egyptian artifacts in the collection, including the various mummies, to the Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia for US $2 million. His identity cannot be conclusively determined, but is persuasively deduced from CT scans, X-rays, skull measurements and radio-carbon dating tests by researchers at the University, as well as aesthetic interpretations of family resemblance. Moreover, the mummy's arms were found crossed high across his chest which was a position reserved solely for Egyptian royalty until 600 BC.[11] His mummy was returned to Egypt on October 24, 2003 with full official honors and is on display at the Luxor Museum.[12]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.140
  2. ^ Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p.140
  3. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Äegyptischen Pharaonischen (Mainz: Phillip von Zabern, 1997), p.190
  4. ^ Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge.
  5. ^ Joyce Tyldesley, Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharaoh (New York: Penguin Books, 2000), pp.37-38
  6. ^ Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis (Leiden: Brill, 2000), pp.289, 300 and 311.
  7. ^ von Beckerath, 'Chronologie, p.190
  8. ^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Blackwell Books, 1992), p. 245
  9. ^ Tyldesley, Ramesses, p.38
  10. ^ The Temple of Ramesses I at Abydos by H.E. Winlock
  11. ^ "U.S. Museum to Return Ramses I Mummy to Egypt.". National Geographic. April 30, 2003. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/04/0430_030430_royalmummy.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "A 3,000-year-old mummy that many scholars believe is ancient Egypt's King Ramses I is the star attraction of an exhibit at the Michael C. Carlos Museum in Atlanta that will run from April 26 to September 14."
  12. ^ "Egypt's 'Ramses' mummy returned". BBC. 26 October 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3215747.stm. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "An ancient Egyptian mummy thought to be that of Pharaoh Ramses I has returned home after more than 140 years in North American museums."

[edit] External links


related articles

En otros idiomas

Category:Ramses I

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository


Contenido





<> - Seti I >

English: Menpehtyre Ramessu I (traditional English: Ramesses, also Ramses or Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292-1290 BC is frequently cited[3] as well as 1295-1294 BC[4]. While Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th Dynasty, in reality his brief reign marked the transition between the reign of Horemheb who had stabilised Egypt and the rule of the powerful Pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular Seti I and Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt up to new heights of imperial power. More...


Français : Menpehtyrê Ramsès Ier a été le pharaon fondateur de la XIXe dynastie de l'Égypte antique ; il régna brièvement, de -1320 à -1310 (d'autres estimations donnent -1318 à -1310, -1295 à -1290 ou encore -1292 à -1290). Pour en savoir plus...
Deutsch: Ramses I. war ein altägyptischer König (Pharao) und Begründer der 19. Dynastie (Neues Reich), welcher von 1292 v. Chr. bis 1290 v. Chr. regierte. Mehr...

Subcategories

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

K

T

Media in category "Ramses I"

The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total.


Categories:
Pharaohs | 19th dynasty of Egypt | 1290s BC










No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario en la entrada

Correo Vaishnava

Archivo del blog