viernes, 11 de diciembre de 2009

Dinastía VII de Egipto

Dinastía VII de EgiptoOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre


La Dinastía VII comienza c. 2175 a. C., y es considerada el inicio del Primer periodo intermedio de Egipto, aunque es cuestionada por muchos egiptólogos respecto a su posible cronología e incluso algunos dudan de su misma existencia.

Contenido


Historia [editar]

Manetón comentó, según Julio Africano, que la dinastía se compuso de "70 reyes de Menfis, reinando 70 días". Eusebio de Cesarea ofrece un relato ligeramente diferente. Nos habla de una dinastía VII que consistió en "cinco reyes de Menfis, que reinaron por 75 días" (75 años en la versión armenia).

Pudieron referirse a reyezuelos preponderantes durante un breve periodo de tiempo, más que a una auténtica dinastía. Podría también ser un consejo temporal de mandatarios, constituido en un periodo de dificultades políticas o económicas, a consecuencia de las malas cosechas. Tal vez fue una época de continuas luchas con cambios constantes de gobernantes.

Las dinastías VII, VIII, IX, X y el primer periodo de la XI se agrupan bajo del título de Primer periodo intermedio de Egipto.

Archivo:Abydos Koenigsliste 40-47.jpg
Lista Real de Abidos. Cartuchos 40-47
Archivo:Abydos Koenigsliste 48-56.jpg
Lista Real de Abidos. Cartuchos 48-56

Gobernantes de la dinastía VII [editar]

  • Hipótesis sugerida por algunos egiptólogos.
Nombre común Nombre de Nesut-Bity Nombre de Sa-Ra Comentarios Reinado
Necherkara Necherkara


Menkara Menkara


Neferkara II
El Niño
Neferkara


Neferkara Neby Neferkara Neby

Dyedkara Shemai Dyedkara Shemay

Neferkara Jendu Neferkara Jendu

Merenhor Merenhor


Neferkamin Neferkamin


Nikara Nikara


Neferkara Tereru Neferkara Tereru

Neferkahor Neferkahor


Titulatura de los Mandatarios [editar]

Las únicas fuentes que disponemos son la Lista Real de Abidos y algunos datos arqueológicos.

Lista Real de Abidos
Nombre de Trono
Nombre de Nacimiento Transliteración Transcripción Traducción Datos arqueológicos
y otras fuentes
40

ra nTr kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

nṯr k3 rˁ Necherkara Divino (es) el Ka de Ra
41
<

ra mn
n

kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

mn k3 rˁ Menkara Estable (es) el Ka de Ra
42
<

ra nfr kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

nfr k3 rˁ Neferkara (II) Hermoso (es) el Ka de Ra
43
<

ra nfr kA nb b i i

" alt=">" height="44px">
<

nb b i i

" alt=">" height="44px">
nfr k3 rˁ nby
nby
Neferkara
Neby
Hermoso (es) el Ka de Ra
El Protector
Hijo de Pepy II. Inscripción en el sarcófago de la reina Anjesenpepy
Nombre en la entrada de la pirámide de Iput
44
<

ra Dd kA U4 A33

" alt=">" height="44px">
<

U4 A33

" alt=">" height="44px">
ḏd k3 rˁ sm3i
sm3i
Dyedkara Shemai Estable (es) el Ka de Ra
El nómada

45
<

ra nfr kA Aa1
n
D46
w D56

" alt=">" height="44px">
<

Aa1
n
D46
w D56

" alt=">" height="44px">
nfr k3 rˁ ẖndu
ẖndu
Neferkara Jendu Hermoso (es) el Ka de Ra En un sello cilíndrico
46
<

G5 U7
n

" alt=">" height="44px">

mr n ḥr Merenhor Amado de Horus
47
<

z nfr kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

s nfr k3 Seneferka Hermoso Ka Nombre en una placa de oro conservada en el British Museum como - nfr k3 mnu -
Hermoso (es) el Ka de Min
48
<

ra n
kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

n k3 rˁ Nekara El que sigue al Ka de Ra Nombre en una placa de oro (la misma de Neferkamin)
49
<

ra nfr kA t
r
r
E23

" alt=">" height="44px">
<

t
r
r
E23

" alt=">" height="44px">
nfr k3 rˁ t r (r) ru
t r (r) ru
Neferkara Tereru Hermoso (es) el Ka de Ra
50
<

G5 nfr kA

" alt=">" height="44px">

nfr k3 ḥr Neferkahor Hermoso es el Ka de Horus En un sello cilíndrico

Cronología [editar]

Otras hipótesis [editar]

La Historia del Antiguo Egipto de Oxford,[1] incluye a la séptima y octava dinastías como parte del Imperio Antiguo de Egipto.

Referencias [editar]

Notas
  1. Ian Shaw: The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. (2000)
Referencias digitales

Enlaces externos [editar]

Commons


Dinastía precedente Primer periodo intermedio de Egipto Dinastía siguiente
Dinastía VI Dinastía VII Dinastía VIII
Categoría: Dinastía VII

Seventh and eighth dynasties of EgyptOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th (Thebes only) Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, First Intermediate Period.

Contents


[edit] Rulers

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties are a little-known line of kings (pharaohs) during a confusing time in the history of Egypt. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for these dynasties are as follows:

Seventh Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Netjerkare? This person is possibly Nitocris, and if so would belong in the sixth dynasty.
- Menkare -
- Neferkare II -
Nebi Neferkare Neby -
- Djedkare Shemai -
- Neferkare Khendu -
- Merenhor -
Seneferka Neferkamin -
- Nikare -
- Neferkare Tereru -
- Neferkahor -
Eighth Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Neferkare Pepiseneb -
- Neferkamin Anu
Iby Qakare Ibi Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day[2]
- Neferkaure II Turin Canon gives rule of four years, two months[3]
Khwiwihepu Neferkauhor Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day[4]
- Neferirkare Turin Canon gives a reign of one and a half years[5]

[edit] Sources

[edit] Manetho

The three sources which provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, the two ancient historians who quote from this section, Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea, provide inconsistent accounts of both dynasties. Africanus claims that the Seventh dynasty consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and the Eighth consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during the Seventh Dynasty five kings ruled over seventy five days, and the Eighth includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version of Manetho, but obviously not the actual correct dates. This epithet is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were extremely ephemeral, and the use of seventy may be a pun on fact that this was Manetho's seventh dynasty.[6] The fact that Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period is interpreted by many as meaning that the seventh dynasty is fictitious.

[edit] The Turin Canon of Kings and Abydos King List

Two Egyptian documents record the names of the kings of Egypt, however they do not divide them into dynasties. Kings 42 to 56 on the Abydos King List come between the end of the Sixth Dynasty and the beginning of the Eleventh, and do not appear to be from the Ninth or Tenth Dynasties either.[7] The Turin Canon is heavily damaged, and cannot be read without much difficulty. However, the fragment containing what is believed to be the name of Nitocris has two mangled names and a third name on it which is clearly that of Qakare Ibi, the 53rd king on the Abydos King List. There seems to be room for two more kings before the end of the dynasty.[8] This would indicate that the missing parts of the Turin Papyrus probably contained the kings in the 51st to 55th registers of the Abydos King List. Because the Turin papyrus omits the first nine kings on the Abydos list, W.C. Hayes thinks it reasonable that the Egyptians may have divided the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties at this point.[9][10]

[edit] Decline into chaos

Given that five names of the kings from this period have Pepi II's throne name Neferkare in their own names, they may have been descendants of the Sixth Dynasty, who were trying to hold on to some sort of power.[11] Some of the acts of the final four Eighth Dynasty kings are recorded in their decrees to Shemay, a vizier during this period, however only Qakare Ibi can be connected to any monumental construction. His pyramid has been found at Saqarra near Pepi II and continues to have the pyramid texts written on the walls.[11]

However many kings there actually were, it is clear that during this time period a breakdown of the central authority of Egypt was underway. The rulers of these dynasties were based in Memphis; with the exception of the final Eighth Dynasty kings, all that is known of most of these rulers is their names. This group of kings was eventually overthrown by a rival group, the Ninth Dynasty, based in Herakleopolis Magna.

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Division between dynasties is on the assumption that the omission of nine kings in the Turin Canon separates the two dynasties.
  2. ^ J. von Beckerath, The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, JNES 21 (1962), p.143
  3. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  4. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  5. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  6. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.138. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  7. ^ Abydos King List, Accessed November 9, 2006
  8. ^ Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  9. ^ Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  10. ^ Piccione's King Lists
  11. ^ a b Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.

Categories:
Dynasties of ancient Egypt

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