sábado, 20 de febrero de 2010

Sesostris II

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Archivo:Louvres-antiquites-egyptiennes-img 2962.jpg
La reina Ueret. Louvre.

Jajeperra Senusert,[1] Senusert II,[2] o Sesostris II,[3] es el cuarto faraón de la dinastía XII de Egipto. Gobernó de c. 1882 a 1872 a. C. (von Beckerath).

Es denominado Jajeperra en la lista Real de Abidos y la lista Real de Saqqara, pero su nombre es ilegible en el Canon Real de Turín. En los epítomes de Manetón no se le menciona. Su 6º año de reinado está documentado en un relieve de un muro de la tumba de un nomarca, en Beni Hassan.



Sesostris II






Contenido



Biografía [editar]

A diferencia de su sucesor, el faraón Senusert II (Sesostris II) mantuvo buenas relaciones con varios nomarcas locales, los influyentes gobernadores provinciales de Egipto que en ésta época eran casi tan poderosos como el propio faraón.

Senusert II destinó grandes recursos a la región del oasis de El Fayum ordenando emprender los trabajos de un amplio sistema de irrigación, desde el Bahr Yusuf "Canal de José" al lago Birket Qarun, mediante la construcción de un dique en El Lahun y una extensa red de canales de riego. El propósito de su gran proyecto era conseguir aumentar la superficie de tierras cultivables en la región.

La importancia de este proyecto es resaltada por la decisión de Senusert II de trasladar la necrópolis real de Dahshur a El Lahun, en donde él ordenó erigir su pirámide. El Lahun, de ahora en adelante, queda como capital política de las dinastías XII y XIII de Egipto.

El rey estableció también la primera ciudad de trabajadores conocida, situada en el pueblo cercano a Kahun, que será prototipo de la ciudad de artesanos del Imperio Nuevo, en Deir el-Medina.

Archivo:El Lahun Pyramid 01.JPG
Pirámide de Senusert II en El Lahun.

Testimonios de su época [editar]

Su posible lugar del entierro, la pirámide construida con adobes, de 106 m de base y casi cincuenta metros de altura, se erigió en El Lahun.

La esposa del rey, la que está con la corona blanca, Ueret –Fragmento Lahun, UC14616–

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


S29 T32 w N16
N16


Srxtail2.GIF
s šm u tauy (Seshemutauy)
El que guía a las Dos Tierras (Egipto)
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
S29 N28
D36
Y1V Aa11
D36
X1
H6
s ḫˁ m m3ˁt (Sejaemmaat)
El que hace surgir la Justicia (Maat)
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
R8A R4
ḥtp nṯru (sehotepnecheru)
El que aplaca a los dioses
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 L1 N28


Hiero Ca2.svg

ḫˁ ḫpr rˁ (Jajeperra)
La manifestación de Ra aparece
(L R Abidos nº 62) (L R Saqqara nº 41)
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

F12 S29 D21
X1
O34
N35


Hiero Ca2.svg

sn usr t (Senusert)
Señor de Usert (la Poderosa)


Referencias [editar]

Notas
  1. Jajeperra Senusert es la transcripción de sus nombres de trono y de nacimiento, según las convenciones académicas.
  2. Senusert es la transcripción de su nombre de nacimiento, más el número ordinal.
  3. Sesostris es el nombre griego dado en los epítomes de Manetón del faraón Jakaura Senusert (Sesostris III), más el número ordinal, que por simplicidad se asignó a Senusert (II) por los historiadores del siglo XIX, aunque ningún egipcio o griego lo denominara así.
Referencias digitales

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Amenemhat II
Faraón
Dinastía XII
Sucesor:
Senusert III (Sesostris III)
Categorías: Dinastía XII | Faraones | Fallecidos en los años 1870 a. C.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Contenido





Senusret II
Pyramid of Senusret II at El-Lahun
Pyramid of Senusret II at El-Lahun
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1897–1878 BC, Twelfth Dynasty
Predecessor Amenemhat II
Successor Senusret III
Consort(s) Khenemetneferhedjet I, Neferet II, Itaweret (?), Khnemet (?), Hent
Father Amenemhat II

Khakeperre Senusret II was the fourth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from 1897 BC to 1878 BC. His pyramid was constructed at El-Lahun. Senusret II took a great deal of interest in the Faiyum oasis region and began work on an extensive irrigation system from the Bahr Yusuf through to Lake Moeris by means the construction of a dike at El-Lahun and the addition of a network of drainage canals. The purpose of his project was to increase the amount of cultivable land here.[2] The importance of this project is emphasized by Senusret II's decision to move the royal necropolis from Dahshur to El-Lahun where he built his pyramid. This location would remain the political capital of the 12th and 13th Dynasties of Egypt. The king also established the first known worker's quarter in the nearby town of Senusrethotep (Kahun).[3]

Unlike his successor, Senusret II maintained good relations with the various local and influential nomarchs or provincial governors of Egypt who were almost as wealthy as the pharaoh himself.[4] His Year 6 is attested in a Wall painting from the tomb of a local nomarch named Khnumhotep at Beni Hasan.

Contents



[edit] Reign Length

Of the rulers of this Dynasty, Senusret II's reign-length is the most debated among scholars. The Turin Canon gives an unknown king of the Dynasty a reign of 19 Years, (which is usually attributed to him), but Senusret II's highest known date is currently only a Year 8 red sandstone stela found in June 1932 from a long unused quarry at Toshka.[5] Some scholars prefer to ascribe him a reign of only 10 Years and assign the 19 Year reign to Senusret III instead. Other Egyptologists, however, such as Jürgen von Beckerath and Frank Yurco have maintained the traditional view of a longer 19 Year reign for Senusret II given the amount of work which the king performed in his reign. Yurco noted that limiting Senusret II's reign to only 6 or 10 years poses major difficulties because this king:

... built a complete pyramid at Kahun, with a solid granite funerary temple and complex of buildings. Such projects optimally took fifteen to twenty years to complete, even with the mudbrick cores used in Middle Kingdom pyramids.[6]

[edit] Succession

File:Pectoral of Senusret II by John Campana.jpg
Pectoral of Senusret II (tomb of Sit-Hathor Yunet)

Senusret II may not have shared a coregency with his son, Senusret III, unlike most other Middle Kingdom rulers. Some scholars support the view that he did, noting a scarab with both king's names inscribed on it, a dedication inscription celebrating the resumption of rituals begun by Senusret II and III, and a papyrus which was thought to mention Senusret II's 19th year and Senusret III's first year on it.[7] None of these three items, however, necessitate a coregency.[8] Moreover, the evidence from the papyrus document is now obviated by the fact that the document has been securely dated to Year 19 of Senusret III and Year 1 of Amenemhet III instead. At present, no document from Senusret II's reign has been discovered from Lahun, this king's new capital city.

[edit] Tomb Treasure

File:Crown of Sit-Hathor Yunet (Senusret II's daughter).jpg
Crown of Princess Sit-Hathor Yunet

In 1889, the English Egyptologist Flinders Petrie found "a marvellous gold and inlaid royal uraeus" that must have originally formed part of Senusret II's looted burial equipment in a flooded chamber of the king's pyramid tomb.[9] It is now located in the Cairo Museum. The tomb of Princess Sit-Hathor-Iunet, a daughter of Senusret II, was also discovered by Egyptologists in a separate burial. Several pieces of jewellery from her tomb including a pair of pectorals and a unique crown or diadem were found here; they are today displayed in either the Metropolitan Museum of New York or the Cairo Museum in Egypt.

In 2009, Egyptian archaeologists announced the results of new excavations. They described unearthing a cache of pharaonic-era mummies in brightly painted wooden coffins near the Lahun pyramid. The mummies were reportedly the first to be found in the sand-covered desert rock surrounding the pyramid.[10]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, (1994), p.78
  2. ^ Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments, Grove Press 2002. p.386
  3. ^ W. M. F. Petrie, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob, London 1891, pp.5ff.
  4. ^ Clayton, p.83
  5. ^ Mark Stone, Reading the Highest Attested Date for Senwosret II: Stela Cairo JE 59485, GM 159(1997), pp.91-100
  6. ^ Frank Yurco, "Black Athena: An Egyptological Review" in Black Athena Revisited, (editor: M. Lefkowitz), University of North Carolina Press: 1996, p.69 (ISBN 0-8078-4555-8)
  7. ^ Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (SAOC) 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977, p.9
  8. ^ Murnane, William J., op. cit., p.9
  9. ^ Clayton, p.80
  10. ^ Johnson, C. Cache of mummies unearthed at Egypt's Lahun pyramid. April 26, 2009.
  • W. Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: History,Archaeology and Society, Duckworth, London 2006 ISBN 0-7156-3435-6, 48-51

[edit] External links

Categories: 1878 BC deaths | Pharaohs of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt

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Category: Senusret II

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