viernes, 19 de febrero de 2010

Semenejkara

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Archivo:Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg
Posible representación de Semenejkara y Meritatón. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlín.

Anjjeperura Semenejkara,[1] o Semenejkara,[2] fue el más breve y enigmático faraón de la dinastía XVIII de Egipto, gobernando de c. 1338/6 a 1336/5 a. C.[3]

Parece ser que su nombre de coronación fue Anj-Jeperu-Ra, y su nombre de nacimiento Se-Men-Ej-Ka-Ra Dyeser-Jeperu, pero hay tantos datos confusos que quizás estemos ante una de las equivocaciones más grandes de la historia de la arqueología y lo estén confundiendo con uno, o incluso con más personajes, del difícil y más original periodo de la historia de Egipto: la época de Amarna.

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Sobre su identidad [editar]

Semenejkara aparece a finales del reinado de Ajenatón (Amenhotep IV/Akenatón), convertido en corregente de este rey y siendo su sucesor durante un breve e indeterminado período. Sin embargo, no se sabe casi nada de este personaje, y hay varias teorías acerca de su identidad. Las dos con más fuerza son:

  • Semenejkara era un hijo del rey Amenhotep III y de una de sus grandes esposas reales, o bien Tiy o bien Sitamón. Era, por tanto, hermano de Ajenatón (Akenatón) y siguiendo esta teoría, también de Tutanjamón (Tutankamón). A él pertenecería el cuerpo hallado en la famosa tumba KV55, la tumba egipcia que más ríos de tinta ha hecho correr (aparte de la de Tutanjamón), cuya momia tiene la misma complexión y tipo de sangre que la de este último.
  • Semenejkara no era un hombre, sino una mujer. Dado que por aquel entonces las mujeres más cercanas a la familia real habían desaparecido, la candidata más firme a ser Semenejkara sería la reina Nefertiti (en ningún momento se dice que hubiera muerto), que como Hatshepsut años antes, habría tomado apariencia y títulos masculinos. Según esa teoría, el cuerpo de la tumba KV55 sería entonces el de Ajenatón.

Esta última teoría ha cobrado en los últimos años más adeptos, pues los estudios sobre la momia de la tumba KV55 han demostrado que el cuerpo era de un hombre, no de unos 25 años, sino de más de treinta años, lo que correspondería con Ajenatón. Además, no hay ni una sola mención de un príncipe llamado Semenejkara, y muchos de los títulos que tenía Nefertiti (consultar Neferneferuatón) fueron heredados por Semenejkara, lo que significaría que serían la misma persona. No obstante, aún no hay nada seguro y, a la espera de nuevos descubrimientos, hay que seguir contemplando estas dos posibilidades.

La estela de la corregencia se encontró en Tell el-Amarna y presentaba tres figuras con sus nombres: Ajenatón, Nefertiti, y la princesa Merytaten la joven. Un estudio más a fondo ha obligado a cambiar los nombres: Nefertiti se ha substituido por Anjjeperure Neferneferuaton, y el de Merytaten por el de Anjesenpaaten; pero esto no permite asegurar, ni mucho menos, nada definitivo sobre una eventual corregencia de Nefertiti bajo el nombre de Semenejkara (el nombre de trono del cual recordamos que fue Anjjeperura).

Uno de los datos a favor de que Semenejkara fuera varón era que tenía su Gran Esposa Real, que era la primogénita del rey, Meritatón, heredera legítima del trono a falta de varones, hija de Nefertiti, nacida cuando estaba casada con Ajenatón, pero antes de ser nombrada "Gran Esposa Real". No tendría mucho sentido que madre e hija se casaran ritualmente pero, dado que todas las reinas-faraones anteriores a Nefertiti habían sido de linaje real y no habían necesitado legitimar su función, quizás este matrimonio simbólico fuera hecho para justificar el ascenso de Nefertiti, que no era hija de faraones, al trono.
El lugar de heredera femenina fue ocupado por su hermana Anjesenpaten, que se casó (o estaba casada) con el joven Tutanjamón.

También se ha querido ver una clara relación afectiva entre Ajenatón y su corregente. Ideas de una posible bisexualidad del rey no tendrían ningún sentido si se demostrase que Semenejkara no era más que la "esposa" por excelencia del rey; de ahí el título último de Semenejkara: Amado de Ajenatón.

Se ignora cuál fue la postura de Semenejkara en cuanto a la difícil situación que atravesaba el país: Ajenatón había prohibido, e incluso condenado, el culto a cualquier dios que no fuera Atón o al menos Ra, las fronteras estaban debilitándose a pasos agigantados, los hititas amenazaban conquistar el territorio egipcio, la pobreza aumentaba... Quizás sea una pista que el nombre de Semenejkara no incluyese el nombre de Atón sino el de Ra, y que el corregente, viendo que la situación había ido muy lejos, se plantease devolver las aguas a su cauce.

Parece ser que cuando murió Ajenatón hubo un tiempo en el que Semenejkara reinó en solitario. Se ha pensado que llegó incluso a mantener conversaciones con el clero de Amón. En su tercer año de corregencia, Semenejkara escribió a un sacerdote de Amón de Tebas sugiriendo que no querría ser enterrado en Amarna sino en el Valle de los Reyes. Es muy probable que no tuviese fe en la creencia de su probable padre Ajenaton y es posible que hasta se plantease dejar para siempre el sueño de Ajenatón y regresar con toda la corte a Tebas. Sea como fuere, el reinado de Semenejkara fue muy breve y aproximadamente en un año y medio había desaparecido por completo de la historia y con él, la gran esposa real Meritatón. Había un nuevo rey, el niño Tutanjamón, que sería el hijo de Ajenatón y de una esposa secundaria de nombre Kiya.

Los seguidores de la teoría de Nefertiti-Semenejkara han querido ver en la falta de datos sobre el reinado del fantasmal corregente el eco de una gravísima traición, conocida como el caso de Dahamunzu, según el cual Nefertiti habría pedido en matrimonio a un príncipe hitita. La conjura fue descubierta y la traidora debidamente eliminada. Sin embargo, una vez más, el misterio sigue rodeando todo esto. Habrá que esperar algún tiempo más hasta que los sugerentes nombres de Ajenatón, Nefertiti, Semenejkara, Meritatón y Tutanjamón nos digan algo más.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.png

N5 S34 L1 Z2s


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ˁnḫ ḫpr.u rˁ (Anjjeperura)
Viviente manifestación de Ra
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.png

N5 S34 L1 Z3 N36
N5
wa
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

ˁnḫ ḫpr.u rˁ mr uˁ n rˁ (Anjjeperura Meryuaenra)
Viviente manifestación de Ra, amado de Ra, el Único
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.png

N5 S34 L1 Z3 N36
N5
F35 L1 Z3


Hiero Ca2.svg

ˁnḫ ḫpr.u rˁ mr nfr ḫpr.u rˁ (Anjjeperura Meryneferjeperura)
Viva manifestación de Ra, amado de Ra, bella manifestación de Ra
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 z
U22 D28
D45 L1 Z3


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s mnḫ k3 rˁ ḏsr ḫpr.u (Semenejkara Dyeserjeperu)
Vigoroso es el espíritu (Ka) de Ra, de santas manifestaciones
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

i t
n
N5
F35 F35 F35 F35 N36
wa
N5
n


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nfr nfr.u itn mr uˁ n rˁ (Neferneferuaton Meryuaenra)
Magnífica es la belleza de Atón, amado de Ra, el Único
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

i t
n
N5
F35 F35 F35 F35 G25 Aa1

N5 Z1
N36
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

nfr nfr.u itn mr 3ḫ n itn (Neferneferuaton Meryajenaton)
Magnífica es la belleza de Atón, amado de Ra, resplandor de Atón

Véase también [editar]

Notas [editar]

  1. Anjjeperura Semenejkara es la transcripción de su nombre de trono y de nacimiento, según las convenciones académicas.
  2. Semenejkara es la transcripción de su nombre de nacimiento, muy utilizado en textos académicos.
    Nombre del faraón según los epítomes de Manetón:
    Acenkeres (Flavio Josefo, Contra Apión)
    Akrenjeres (Flavio Josefo, de Teófilo)
    Akerres (Julio Africano, versión de Sincelo)
    Akerres (Eusebio de Cesarea, versión de Sincelo)
    Akerres (Eusebio de Cesarea, versión armenia)
    Otras grafías de su nombre: Ankheperura, Ankheperure, Ankhkheperura, Ankhkheperure, Djeserkheperu, Djeserkheperura, Djeserkheperure, Meriakhenaton, Merireneferkheperura, Meryreneferkheperure, Nefertiti (?), Saakara, Saakare, Sakera, Sakere, Semenekhkara, Semenekhkare, Semenkara, Semenkare, Semenkhara, Semenkhare.
  3. Cronología según von Beckerath, Grimal, Shaw, y Málek.

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Akenatón (Amenofis IV)
Faraón
Dinastía XVIII
Sucesor:
Tutankamon
Categorías: Amarna | Faraones | Dinastía XVIII | Fallecidos en los años 1330 a. C.

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Smenkhkare
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign ?, 18th Dynasty
Predecessor Akhenaten?
Successor Tutankhamun?
Consort(s) Meritaten
Died ?

Smenkhkare (sometimes erroneously spelled Smenkhare or Smenkare and meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was an ephemeral Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, of whom very little is known for certain. Traditionally he is seen as Akhenaten's co-regent and immediate successor and predecessor of Tutankhamun and is assumed to be a close, male relative of those two kings (either by blood or marriage).

More recent scholarly work has cast serious doubts on this traditional view and most aspects of this individual's life and position. His relation to the Amarna royal family, the nature and importance of his reign, and even his gender are up for debate. Related to this is the ongoing question whether Akhenaten's co-regent and successor are in fact the same person.

Contents



[edit] Historical context

The scenes in the tombs of Meryre II and Huya (located in the Amarna Northern tombs necropolis) depicting the "reception of foreign tribute" are the last clear view we have of the Amarna period[2]. The events depicted are, in the tomb of Meryre II, dated to the second month of Akhenaten's regnal year 12 (in the tomb of Huya they are interestingly enough dated to year 12 of the Aten)[3] and show the last securely dated appearance of the royal family as a whole (that is: Akhenaten and his chief-queen Nefertiti, together with their six daughters). These scenes are also the first dated occurrence of the latter name-forms of the Aten[2]. After this date the events at Amarna and their chronology become far less clear. It is only with the accession of Tutankhamun, and the restoration early in this king's reign, that matters become clearer again.

It is precisely in this shadowy late Amarna period that Akhenaten's co-regent and probable immediate successor comes to the fore. Akhenaten is generally assumed to have died in the late autumn of his 17th regnal year (after the bottling of wine in that year). Nefertiti disappears from view somewhat earlier (around regnal year 14); the reasons for this are at present still unclear and under debate (see below). Around the same time a new co-regent is first attested.

[edit] Names

Many of the questions and uncertainties surrounding Akhenaten's co-regent and successor revolve around the names attested for this individual (or individuals). There appear two closely similar yet distinct sets of names in the records available for the late Amarna period. These are:[4]

  • Ankhkheprure+epithet Neferneferuaten+epithet (sometimes transliterated as Nefernefruaten)
  • Ankhkheprure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperu

Both these sets are written in two cartouches. The epithets in the former name-set are "desired of Neferkheprure/Waenre" (i.e. Akhenaten). The first set of names also sometimes appears in feminine form as "Ankhetkheprure Neferneferuaten" and sometimes the epithet for the nomen is then replaced by "beneficial to her husband". The former set of names appears to be earlier, and the association of these names with Akhenaten seems more substantial than is the case for the latter set. Both names are associated with Meritaten as great royal wife[5]. Both sets of names are only poorly attested. To date, no objects other than a wine jar label and six royal seals bearing the names of Ankhkheprure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperu are known. Only one named depiction of Smenkhkare along with Meritaten (in the tomb of Meryre II) are known. Some objects with the names of Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten were reused in the burial of Tutankhamun (see below), and the female variant of these names appears on faience ring bezels.

Because of the presence of the feminine Ankhetkheperure Neferneferuaten, the old view is generally discarded that there was only one, male, individual involved who first acted as Akhenaten's co-regent under the name Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten and, after the death of Akhenaten, succeeded him under the name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare. Several theories have been proposed to accommodate the presence of a woman:

To some the shared prenomen, function, and queen indicate that there is only one person associated with these different names. They seek to identify this individual as a female member of the royal family.[6] Others, based on the feminine variety of the Neferneferuaten name on the one hand and the identification of the body in KV55 as that of Smenkhkare (see below), see evidence for two distinct individuals, one female and the other male[7][8][9]. It must be noted there is disagreement as to which names belong to each individual (see below).

[edit] Identity

Those who see only evidence for one female co-regent and successor of Akhenaten identify this individual with Nefertiti. They draw attention to the fact that Akhenaten's co-regent's name Neferneferuaten is also an epithet bestowed on Nefertiti earlier in the Amarna period. They also point out that Nefertiti disappears from view around the same time that Akhenaten's co-regent first appears. And lastly they see further evidence for Nefertiti's elevation to kingly status in the Coregency Stela and several other, unfinished stelae. The latter include the Pase stela (depicting two figures wearing crowns who are nevertheless identified as a king and queen by the three uniscribed cartouches); the Berlin 25574 stela (depicting Akhenaten and Nefertiti but with an extra, fourth, cartouche added to indicate two kings rather than a king and queen); and in Meryre II's tomb, a scene in which the figures of Akhenaten and Nefertiti are nearly superimposed over each other (which is interpreted as indicating the oneness of their co-rule). In short, a clear sequence of changing names and functions is suggested: from queen Nefertiti, who later becomes queen Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, over co-regent Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten to successor Ankhkheprure Smenkhkare Djeserkheperu.[10]

On the other hand, those who identify both a female and male co-regent/successor assume Nefertiti predeceased her husband, based on two fragmentary shabti figures inscribed for her as queen. (These might be votive offerings, similar to figurines of Tiye found in the tomb of Amenhotep III. Ushabti figures were normally placed in a tomb prior to its owner's death[11]). As a consequence, scholars identify the female Ankhetkheperure as either Meritaten, who is then assumed to have succeeded her deceased husband Smenkhkare[12][13], or as Akhenaten and Nefertiti's fourth daughter Neferneferuaten Tasherit, who is seen as Akhenaten's co-regent before the sole rule of Smenkhkare.[8] They identify the male Smenkhkare as an older close relative of Tutankhamun, with both classified as either sons or sons-in-law of Akhenaten.

As was already noted above, the variously attested names are distributed differently between these two individuals: some researchers distinguish between a female Ankhetkheperure Neferneferuaten and a male Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare/Neferneferuaten[13], while others distinguish between a female Ankhetkheperure/Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten and a male Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare[8][14].

One theory holds that Smenkhkare was Akhenaten's male lover as well as co-regent, due to images found where a male (believed to be Smenkhkare) was depicted beside Akhenaten in a manner very similar to how Nefertiti was shown in earlier records. Some believe that the figure is meant to be Nefertiti, or one of Akhenaten's daughters, who took the place of her mother in the religious and political hierarchy due to the necessity of both roles in Atenism (after the theoretical death of Nefertiti). The figure is not dressed in a manner typical of the way the females in Akhenaten's family were depicted. Its clothing is more similar to Akhenaten's garments.

[edit] Reign

[edit] Length of reign

The sole regnal date (year 1) attested for Smenkhkare comes from a jar label for wine from "the house of Smenkhkare"; this date might however refer either to the reign of Smenkhkare or that of Tutankhamun.[8] The highest known date for Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten, regnal year 3, is attested in a graffiti in the Theban tomb of Pairi (TT139)[8]. It is unclear whether this refers to a sole rule or a co-regency.

Manetho's kinglists includes three 18th-dynasty rulers named Akenkeres (which might be identified as a Greek rendering of Ankhkheprure), one of which is identified as a king's daughter who ruled for twelve years and a month. Both the repetition of names and the attested length of reign might be due to corruptions.[15] Finally, it is also possible that the sole rule of Smenkhkare coincided with the beginning of Tutankhamun's reign.[16]

[edit] Politics

Virtually nothing is known about the politics of Akhenaten's co-regent/successor. The TT139 graffiti mentioned above refers to an active Amun-priesthood, practising in the temple of Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten (possibly this individual's mortuary temple). This could indicate a first step towards an agreement between the Atenist and traditional religions, which would be further consolidated during the reign of Tutankhamun.[17]

[edit] Dakhamunzu

The Hittite annals known as The Deeds of Suppiluliuma informs us how an Egyptian queen named Dakhamunzu, the widow of her recently deceased husband Niphururiya and without sons, asks the Hittite king Suppiluliama to send her one of his own sons to be her husband and king of Egypt and how, after further negotiations, a Hittite prince (Zannanza) is send to Egypt, only to be murdered en route there[18]. The synchronisation of Hittite and Egyptian chronologies is unclear, but it is certain that the recounted episode must have happened in the late 18th Dynasty of Egypt (i.e. the late Amarna period and its immediate aftermath)[19]. The correct identification of the individuals involved in this episode could therefore possibly cast light on some of the questions surrounding Akhenaten's co-regent and successor.

It is now generally assumed that Dakhamunzu is a Hittite rendering of the Egyptian title ta hemet nesu - the king's wife - rather than the name of a queen. Unfortunately the name of this queen's husband, Niphururiya, might equally be a rendering of the prenomen of either Akhenaten (Neferkheprure) or Tutankhamun (Nebkheprure)[20]. Traditionally identification with the latter is preferred and consequentially Dakhamunzu is identified with his widow Ankhesenamun (later married to her servant Ay). Studies of the chronology of the event suggest however that Akhenaten would be a more likely candidate for Nibhururiya[19][21] in which case the account in the Hittite annals can be seen as either evidence for Nefertiti's continuing importance during the late-Amarna period (in the guise of Smenkhkare) or for Meritaten's role as Akhenaten's co-regent[19]. In the former case it is assumed that Tutankhamun supplanted Nefertiti on the throne after the murder of Zannanza, in the latter case it is believed that Meritaten was afterwards forced to marry her servant Smenkhkare although the possible identification of Zannanza as Smenkhkare is also suggested[19].

[edit] Burial

Evidence relating to the burial(s) of Akhenaten's co-regent(s) and possible successor(s) might be found in two different tombs, both located in the Valley of the Kings

[edit] KV 55

As pointed out above, the reason some scholars distinguish between a male and female co-regent/successor of Akhenaten rests on the identification of the KV55 mummy as that of Smenkhkare. This identification was based on anatomical evidence indicating that the KV55 body was that of a male, and shared the same rare blood type as Tutankhamun, and came to the conclusion that this mummy and Tutankhamun are closely related, either as father and son or as brothers. The KV55 mummy was originally given an estimated age of death from about twenty to twenty five years, which was seen as being far too young to be Akhenaten himself.[22] However, this identification was problematic as the archaeological evidence and inscriptions found in this tomb suggested that the body in KV55 was that of Akhenaten[23][24].

Because of this the correctness of the original age estimates were repeatedly called into question,[25][26][27][14] and prior to the genetic tests done in early 2010, several professional opinions were made suggesting a much later age for the skeletal remains, pointing to an age of about 35 years based on dentition or even later (based on anthropological standards and more-recent X-rays of the long bones).[28][29] It must be remembered that it is very difficult to date a mummy's age, and there are many differing opinions on the legitimacy of dating techniques. We may never be able to prove the age of this mummy at death, but it is probable that the ancient Egyptians who buried (and later desecrated) the body in KV55 believed it to be Akhenaten's.[30]

[edit] Recent genetic tests

Genetic tests published in February 2010 have confirmed that the body found buried in tomb KV55 was the father of Tutankhamun and the son of Amenhotep III, and is therefore "most probably" Akhenaten.[31] Further anatomical studies of the KV55 skeletal remains were also undertaken at this time, with the conclusion that they were much older than previously assumed.[32] The reports sums up the issue by saying that "the proof that Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye are the parents of KV55, combined with this anthropological and archeological evidence, indicates that the mummy in KV55 is almost certainly Akhenaten".[32]

[edit] KV62

Other than a fragmentary box bearing the names of Akhenaten, Meritaten and Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten which was found by Howard Carter outside Tutkanhamen's tomb[5], several funerary items originally made for Neferneferuaten were found in this king's tomb. The most notable of these usurpations are the mummy bands and the canopic coffins[33]. It has also been noted that the features of the canopic stoppers and the second coffin do not resemble those of Tutankhamen and it has been suggested that these too had originally been intended for Akhenaten's co-regent[34].

These objects indicate that this individual's original burial must have been substantial and impressive. More importantly however, it must be noted that all these items are purely traditional in nature. Further evidence for this might be seen in the TT139 graffiti mentioned above[35].

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames & Hudson, 1988).
  • Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames & Hudson, 2001).

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Clayton,P., Chronicle of the Pharaohs (Thames and Hudson, 2006) p.120
  2. ^ a b Allen, J.P., "The Amarna Succession", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, p.1
  3. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames&hudson, 2001) p. 162
  4. ^ Allen, J.P., "The Amarna Succession", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, pp. 1-2
  5. ^ a b Allen, J.P., "The Amarna Succession", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, p.2
  6. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson pp172-173
  7. ^ Dodson, A. and Hilton,D., The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt: A Genealogical Sourcebook of the Pharaohs (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
  8. ^ a b c d e Allen, J.P., "The Amarna Succession", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane
  9. ^ Hornung, E., Krauss, R. and Warburton, D. (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Brill, 2006)
  10. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) pp165-173
  11. ^ Osman, Ahmed, "Moses and Akhenaten" (Bear and Co. 2002) p.138
  12. ^ Dodson, p.207 & 285, n.111
  13. ^ a b Hornung, E., Krauss, R. and Warburton, D. (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Brill, 2006)
  14. ^ a b Gabolde, M., "Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane
  15. ^ Hornung, E., Krauss, R. and Warburton, D. (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Brill, 2006) p.207
  16. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) p. 180
  17. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) pp. 164-165
  18. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) pp. 175-176
  19. ^ a b c d McMurray, W. Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt, p.5
  20. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) p. 165
  21. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's false Prophet (Thames and Hudson) pp. 176-177
  22. ^ Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) pp. 201-202
  23. ^ Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications. 1990), p.v and following
  24. ^ Bell, M.R., "An Armchair Excavation of KV 55", JARCE 27 (1990), p. 134
  25. ^ Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 202
  26. ^ Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990) p. 49
  27. ^ Bell, M.R., "An Armchair Excavation of KV 55", JARCE 27 (1990) pp. 135
  28. ^ Reeves, C.N, Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001) p. 84
  29. ^ Fletcher, Joann, The Search for Nefertiti (William Morrow, 2004) p.180
  30. ^ Bell, M.R., "An Armchair Excavation of KV 55", JARCE 27 (1990) pp. 135
  31. ^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family" The Journal of the American Medical Association p.644
  32. ^ a b Hawass Z, et al. "Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun's family". JAMA. 2010;303(7):eAppendix p.3.
  33. ^ Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990) p. 60
  34. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001) p. 179
  35. ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001) p. 179
Categories: Amarna Period | Pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt | Historical deletion in ancient Egypt

Category:Smenkhkare

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<> - Tutankhamun >

English: Smenkhkare is an ephemeral Pharaoh of the late Eighteenth Dynasty of whom very little is known for certain. More...

Media in category "Smenkhkare"

The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total.

Categories: Pharaohs | 18th dynasty of Egypt | 14th century BC












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