martes, 16 de febrero de 2010

Ramsés XI

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Archivo:Ostracon03-RamessidePeriod MetropolitanMuseum.png
Ostracon de época ramésida. Metropolitan Museum NY.

Menmaatra-Setepenptah Ramsés-Jaemuaset, o Ramsés XI, gobernó de c. 1099 a 1069 a. C.;[1] fue el décimo y último rey de la dinastía XX de Egipto. Con este faraón termina la época ramésida, el Imperio Nuevo y comienza el tercer periodo intermedio de Egipto.

Contenido


El reinado de de Ramsés XI [editar]

Ramsés XI, hijo de Ramsés X y la reina Titi, gobernó al menos 29 años y posiblemente hasta 33 años. Su reinado se caracterizó por la gradual disgregación del estado egipcio. El conflicto civil era ya evidente al principio de su reinado cuando el Sumo sacerdote de Amón, Amenhotep, fue destituido del cargo por el rey con ayuda de los soldados de Nubia bajo las órdenes de Panehesy, el virrey de Nubia. Los robos de tumbas eran frecuentes por todas partes, las fortunas de Egipto disminuyeron y sus dominios asiáticos se perdieron.

Herihor y Esmendes [editar]

Como la situación caótica continuaba, antes del año decimonoveno del reinado de Ramsés, Herihor utilizó al ejército egipcio para restaurar el orden, y llegó a ser el nuevo Sumo sacerdote de Amón. Ramsés XI en el decimonoveno año de reinado estableció un triunvirato, con Herihor que gobernaba Tebas y el Alto Egipto, y con Esmendes que controlaba el Bajo Egipto. Este período fue llamado por los egipcios Uhm Msut, la «Era del Renacimiento». Herihor acumuló poder y títulos a costa de Panehesy, el virrey de Nubia, a quien él había expulsado de Tebas. Esta rivalidad originó la guerra civil. En Tebas, Herihor usurpó el poder, sin deponer a Ramsés, simplemente ignorando la autoridad de rey.

Herihor murió alrededor de año sexto del Uhm Msut «Era del Renacimiento» (Año 24º de Ramsés XI) y le sucedió como Sumo sacerdote Pianj, su hijo político. Pianj emprendió al menos una campaña en Nubia para arrebatar el control de esta región rica en oro de manos de Panehesy, pero sus esfuerzos fueron finalmente inútiles y Nubia se desligó permanentemente del dominio egipcio. Este acontecimiento agravó los infortunios de Egipto, porque ahora había perdió el control de todas sus posesiones imperiales y le fue vedado el acceso al suministro de oro de Nubia.

El entierro de Ramsés XI [editar]

Ramsés XI ordenó preparar su tumba en el Valle de los Reyes (KV4), pero nunca fue acabada y fue enterrado lejos de Tebas, posiblemente cerca de Menfis. Esmendes I heredó el trono, apoyándose en la convención egipcia de que aquel que presidía el enterramiento del rey le sucedería en el trono. Puesto que Esmendes presidió el entierro de Ramsés XI, podría adjudicarse formalmente la corona de Egipto e inaugurar la dinastía XXI en su ciudad natal, Tanis, aunque no controlara el Medio y Alto Egipto, que estaban en poder de los Sumos sacerdotes de Amón tebanos.

Cuando murió Ramsés XI, la aldea de Deir el-Medina fue abandonada porque la necrópolis real había cambiado de lugar, situándose en el Delta, en Tanis. No había ya necesidad de los servicios de sus artesanos en la región de Tebas.

Testimonios de su época [editar]

Hay inscripciones de su época en:

El reinado de Ramsés XI es notable por la gran cantidad e importancia de los papiros descubiertos, y por una serie integra de cartas de Ramsés, escritas por los escribas Dhutmose, Butehamun y el sumo sacerdote Pianj, donde se narra el inexorable declive del poder del último rey, incluso a ojos de sus propios funcionarios.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


E2
D40
C2 N36


Srxtail2.GIF
k3 nḫt mry rˁ (Kenmerira)
Toro potente, amado de Ra
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
wsr s T16 O4
D46
D36
D43
I8 Z3
usr ḫpš hd hfnu (Userjepesh hedhefenu)
Poderoso en el ataque, pródigo en asaltos
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
G36
r
F22
t
Z5 A24 s S34 N19
N23 N23
i A2 U33 i i A23 G7
S34 U28 s O4
D21
W23 Y1V U5
D36
Z1 H6 Y1V s R4
p t
Y1V N19
N23 N23
ur pḥty sˁnḫ t3uy ity hru ḥr m3ˁt s ḥtp t3uy
(Uerpehtisanjtauy tyheruhormaat sehoteptauy)
Potente, que da nueva vida y reconcilia a las Dos Tierras (Egipto) bajo al majestad de Maat
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 mn C10 A40 U21
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

mn m3ˁt rˁ stp.n ptḥ
(Menmaatra Setepenptah)
Eterna es la justicia (Maat) de Ra, elegido de Ptah
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

N28 C2 R19 C12 N36
r r
F31s
O34
O34
S38 R8 O28


Hiero Ca2.svg

rˁ ms su ḫˁ m u3st mr r imn nṯr ḥq3 iunu
(Ramsés Jaemuaset Mereramón Necherheqaiunu)
Engendrado por Ra, que aparece en Uaset (Tebas),
Señor de Iunu (Heliópolis)


Notas [editar]

  1. Cronología según Ian Shaw y Jaromír Málek.


Predecesor:
Ramsés X
Faraón
Dinastía XX
Sucesor:
Esmendes I


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Ramesses XI
Also written Ramses and Rameses
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1107–1078/77 BC, 20th Dynasty
Predecessor Ramesses X
Successor Smendes
Consort(s) Baketwernel, Tentamun
Children Duathathor-Henuttawy, Tentamun
Father Ramesses X?
Mother Tyti (?)
Died 1078 or 1077 BC
Burial KV4

Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years although some Egyptologists think he could have ruled for as long as 30 years. The latter figure would be up to 2 years beyond this king's highest known date of Year 10 of the Whm-Mswt era or Year 28 of his reign.[2] One scholar, Ad Thijs, has even suggested that Ramesses XI reigned as long as 33 years—such is the degree of uncertainty surrounding the end of his long reign.[3] He was, perhaps, the son of Ramesses X by Queen Tyti who was a King's Mother.[4] He married both Baketwernel a King's Sister, and Tentamun, the daughter of Nebseny, with whom he fathered Henuttawy--the future wife of the high priest Pinedjem I.

It is believed that Ramesses ruled into his Year 29 since a graffito records that the High Priest of Amun Piankhy returned to Thebes from Nubia on III Shemu day 23—or just 3 days into what would have been the start of Ramesses XI's 29th regnal year. Piankhy is know to have campaigned in Nubia during Year 28 of Ramesses XI's reign (or Year 10 of the Whm Mswt) and would have returned home to Egypt in the following year.

Contents


[edit] Background

Ramesses XI's reign was characterized by the gradual disintegration of the Egyptian state. Civil conflict was already evident around the beginning of his reign when High Priest of Amon, Amenhotep, was ousted from office by the king with the aid of Nubian soldiers under command of Pinehesy, Viceroy of Nubia, for overstepping his authority with Ramesses XI. Tomb robbing was prevalent all over Thebes as Egypt's fortunes declined and her Asiatic empire was lost.

As the chaos and insecurity continued, Ramesses was forced to inaugurate a triumvirate in his Regnal Year 19, with the High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling Thebes and Upper Egypt and Smendes controlling Lower Egypt. Herihor had risen from the ranks of the Egyptian military to restore a degree of order, and became the new high Priest of Amun. This period was officially called the Era of the Renaissance or Whm Mswt by Egyptians. Herihor amassed power and titles at the expense of Pinehesy, Viceroy of Nubia, whom he had expelled from Thebes. This rivalry soon developed into full-fledged civil war under Herihor's successor. At Thebes, Herihor usurped royal power without actually deposing Ramesses, and he effectively became the defacto ruler of Upper Egypt because his authority superseded the king's.

Herihor died around Year 6 of the Whm Mswt (Year 24 of Ramesses XI) and was succeeded as High Priest by Piankh. Piankh initiated one or two unsuccessful campaigns into Nubia to wrest control of this gold-producing region from Pinehesy's hands, but his efforts were ultimately fruitless as Nubia slipped permanently out of Egypt's grasp. This watershed event worsened Egypt's woes, because she had now lost control of all her imperial possessions and was denied access to a regular supply of Nubian gold.

[edit] Reign length

Ramesses XI's reign is notable for a large number of important papyri that have been uncovered, including the Adoption Papyrus, which mentions Regnal Years 1 and 18 of his reign; the Turin Taxation Papyrus; the House-list Papyrus; and an entire series of Late Ramesside Letters written by the scribes Dhutmose, Butehamun, and the High Priest Piankh —the latter of which chronicle the severe decline of the king's power even in the eyes of his own officials.

Thijs, in his GM 173 paper, notes that the House-list Papyrus, which is anonymously dated to Year 12 of Ramesses XI (ie: the document was compiled in either Year 12 of the pre-Renaissance period or during the Whm Mswt era itself), mentions two officials: the Chief Doorkeeper Pnufer, and the Chief Warehouseman Dhutemhab. These individuals were recorded as only ordinary Doorkeeper and Warehouseman in Papyri BM 10403 and BM 10052 respectively, which are explicitly dated to Year 1 and 2 of the Whm Mswt period. This would suggest that the Year 12 House-list Papyrus postdates these two documents and was created in Year 12 of the Whm Mswt era instead (or Regnal Year 30 proper of Ramesses XI), which would account for these two individuals' promotions. Thijs then proceeds to use several anonymous Year 14 and 15 dates in another papyrus, BM 9997, to argue that Ramesses XI lived at least into his 32nd and 33rd Regnal Years (or Years 14 and 15 of the Whm Mswt). This document mentions a certain Sermont, who was only titled an Ordinary Medjay (Nubian) in the Year 12 House-list Papyrus but is called "Chief of the Medjay" in Papyrus BM 9997. Sermont's promotion would thus mean that BM 9997 postdates the House-list Papyrus and must be placed late in the Renaissance period.

If true, then Ramesses XI should have survived into his 33rd Regnal Year or Year 15 of the Whm Mswt era before dying. Unfortunately, however, it must be stressed that there are clear inconsistencies in the description of an individual's precise title even within the same source document itself. For instance, Papyrus Mayer A mentions both a certain Dhuthope, a doorkeeper of the temple of Amun as well as a Dhuthope, Chief Doorkeeper of the temple of Amun. The reference to the first Dhuthope occurs in the regular papyrus entry while the other appears towards the end of the list but few people would dispute that they refer to the same man. Similarly, the Necropolis Journal entry from Year 17 of Ramesses XI lists the Chief Workman Nekhemmut as well as a workman named Nekhemmut, son of Amenua. While they appear to be the same person at first glance, their official titles are different with the latter lacking the senior title 'Chief'. Hence, Thijs' case for a Year 33 proper for Ramesses XI may be illusory. Since there are two attested promotions of individuals in 2 separate papyri, however, there is a small possibility that Ramesses XI did live into his 33rd Regnal Year. Against this view, however, is the fact that no evidence survives of any Heb Sed Feasts for Ramesses XI. At present, only his proposal that Papyrus BM 10054 dates to Year 10 of the Whm-Mswt (or Year 28 proper of Ramesses XI) has been confirmed by other scholars such as Von Beckerath and Annie Gasse—the latter in a JEA 87 (2001) paper which studied several newly discovered fragments belonging to this document.[5] Consequently, it would appear that Ramesses XI's highest undisputed date is presently Year 11 of the Whm-Mswt (or Year 29 proper) of his reign, when Piankh's Nubian campaign terminated which means that the pharaoh had a minimum reign of 29 years when he died—which can perhaps be extended to 30 years due to the "gap between the beginning of Dynasty 21 and the reign of Ramesses XI."[6], with 33 years being hypothethical at present.

When Ramesses XI died, the village of Deir El Medina was abandoned because the Royal Necropolis was shifted northward to Tanis. There was no further need for their services at Thebes.

[edit] Burial

Sometime during this troubled period, Ramesses XI died in obscurity. While he had a tomb prepared for himself in the Valley of the Kings (KV4), it was left unfinished and only partly decorated since Ramesses XI instead arranged to have himself buried away from Thebes, possibly near Memphis. This pharaoh's tomb, however, includes some unusual features, including four rectangular, rather than square, pillars in its burial chamber and an extremely deep central burial shaft– at over 30 feet or 10 metres long– which was perhaps designed as an additional security device to prevent tomb robbery.[7] Ramesses XI's tomb was used as a workshop for processing funerary materials from the burials of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III and perhaps Thutmose I during the 21st dynasty under the reign of the High Priest of Thebes, Pinedjem I.[8] Ramesses XI's tomb has stood open since antiquity and was used as a dwelling by the Copts.[9]

Since Ramesses XI had himself buried in Lower Egypt, Smendes rose to the kingship of Egypt, based on the well known custom that he who buried the king inherited the throne. Since Smendes buried Ramesses XI, he could legally assume the crown of Egypt and inaugurate the 21st Dynasty from his hometown at Tanis, even if he did not control Middle and Upper Egypt, which were now effectively in the hands of the High Priests of Amun at Thebes.

[edit] References

  1. ^ [1] Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah
  2. ^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.475
  3. ^ Ad Thijs, "Reconsidering the End of the Twentieth Dynasty. Part III: Some Hitherto Unrecognised Documents from the Whm Mswt," Göttinger Miszellen 173 (1999), pp. 175-192.[2]
  4. ^ Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991, Christian Settipani, p.153, 169 & 173
  5. ^ Annie Gasse, "Panakhemipet et ses complices (À propos du papyrus BM EA 10054, R° 2, 1–5)", JEA 87 (2001), pp.81-92
  6. ^ Hornung, Krauss & Warburton, p.475
  7. ^ Nicholas Reeves & Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Valley of the Kings, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1996. p.173
  8. ^ Reeves & Wilkinson, p.173
  9. ^ Reeves & Nicholson, p.172

[edit] External links

Categories: 1070s BC deaths | Pharaohs of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt
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