lunes, 28 de diciembre de 2009

Intef VII

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De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Sejemra Horhormaat - Intef, o Intef VII, fue un faraón de la dinastía XVII, que gobernó c. 1560 a. C.,[1] durante el segundo periodo intermedio de Egipto.

Sarcófago de Sejemra Horhormaat Intef. Louvre.

Contenido

[ocultar]

Biografía [editar]

Intef VII es uno de los reyes mejor documentado de esta dinastía; se sabe que fue el hermano de Intef VI y el hijo de Sejemra-Shedtauy, Sobekemsaf II.

Gobernó desde Tebas aunque su soberanía se limitó al Alto Egipto. Es el primero cuya actividad organizadora e intenciones belicosas se certifican. Ordenó construir en varios lugares y, en el año 3º de su reinado, se grabó un edicto relativo al templo de Min en Coptos que da prueba del carácter autoritario de este gobernante.

Fue contemporáneo del faraón hicso Apofis I (Apophis I), y parece haber tenido tratos rentables con él. Tebas está aún en paz con los hicsos, y los intercambios son numerosos entre los dos reinos.

La hipótesis de la lealtad de Tebas al reino del norte no debe descartarse, dado que se certificó de Apofis que llevaba el título de rey de Alto y Bajo Egipto, con influencia hasta Gebelein. Además, Apofis casó a su hija Hérit, con un miembro de la familia real tebana. Tras su reinado, es cuando sus sucesores comenzarán la lucha abierta, conseguirán la victoria contra los hicsos, dando comienzo al Imperio Nuevo de Egipto.

Ataúd de Sejemra Horhormaat Intef. Louvre.

Intef VII murió prematuramente, después de un breve reinado; quizás fue asesinado, en opinión de von Beckerath; fue enterrado en una tumba de la necrópolis de Dra Abu el-Naga, con sus armas (arcos y flechas). El lugar de su tumba, al norte de la de sus predecesores, indica que inauguraba una nueva necrópolis.

Testimonios de su época [editar]

Intef VII ordenó construir un nuevo templo en Gebel Intef y restauró numerosos templos del Alto Egipto.

Auguste Mariette, en 1860, comenzó una excavación más completa en Dra Abu el-Naga, en el lugar donde algunos años antes se habían hallado las sepulturas de Kamose y la reina Ahhotep, y encuentra la tumba de Antef VII que contenía aún su sarcófago y un cofre de vasos canopos de madera con restos dorados. Estos objetos se exponen en el museo del Louvre. Así se pudieron recuperar las tumbas de los principales soberanos del dinastía XVII. También encontró dos obeliscos resquebrajados del faraón con los cinco títulos completos, pero en el transporte al Museo Egipcio de El Cairo se perdieron.

Su tumba fue re-excavada por Daniel Polz, subdirector del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en 2001, revelando los restos que originalmente estaba culminada con una pequeña pirámide de unos once metros en la base, alcanzando una altura de unos trece metros.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.png

N5 Y8 O4
r
D2
Z1
Aa11
D36


Hiero Ca2.svg

sḫm rˁ hr ḥr m3ˁt (Sejemra Horhormaat)
Poderoso Ra, que satisface la justicia (Maat)
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5

Hiero Ca1.svg

W25 i N35
X1
I9


Hiero Ca2.svg

ini t.f (Intef)
Intef. El que emula a su padre


Referencias [editar]

Notas
  1. Franke
Referencias digitales

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Intef VI
Faraón
Dinastía XVII
Sucesor:
Taa I
Categorías: Faraones | Dinastía XVII

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Antef VII)

Nubkheperre Intef VII (or Antef) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt. He is known to be the brother of Intef VI and perhaps the son of Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf I. Intef VII is one of the best attested kings of this Dynasty who restored numerous damaged temples in Upper Egypt as well as constructing a new temple at Gebel Antef.

Intef VII ruled from Thebes, and was buried in a tomb in the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga'. The grave was originally covered with a small pyramid (approximately 11 m at the base, rising to a height of approx. 13 m.) Auguste Mariette found two broken obelisks with complete Fivefold Titulary, which was then subsequently lost on transport to the Cairo Museum.

His wife was the great king's wife Sobekemsaf, perhaps coming from local family at Edfu. On an Abydos stela mentionning a building of the king appears also the king's son, head of the bowmen Nakht. He might be a son of the king although this is far from certain.[1]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Building programme

The best preserved building of the king are remains of a small chapel set up at Koptos. Four walls can be reconstructed most often showing the king in front of Min and once crowned by Horus and another god. The reliefs are excuted in raised and sunken relief.[2]. At Koptos was also found a decree on a stela referring to actions of the king against an unnamed enemy.[3] At Abydos were found several stone fragment, such as columns, also attesting some kind of restoration work.[4] Finally there was found a block with the king's name near Luxor. Here he is called son of a king Sobekemsaf. This Sobekemsaf was perhaps Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf I. On a stela found at Abydos, there is mentioned an House of Intef. It refers most likely to a building of this king.[5]

[edit] Tomb discovery

Nebkheperre Intef's wooden coffin

His tomb was rediscovered by Daniel Polz, the deputy director of the German Archaeological Institute in 2001. Below is a June 29, 2001 Reuters report concerning the discovery of his royal tomb (see 'Egyptian royal tomb discovered.')

"In a first, a joint team of German and Egyptian archaeologists has unearthed a royal tomb dating back to the 17th Dynasty which likely belonged to a king whose great-grandsons swept out foreign rulers and paved the way for the New Kingdom - Ancient Egypt's "Golden Age". The German Institute of Archaeology in Cairo (DAI), in announcing the find, said they are convinced the 3500-year-old tomb belonged to Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, a monarch of the late 17th Dynasty. A time of political turmoil and confusion, the 17th Dynasty has failed to provide archaeologists with a royal tomb for study-until now....The tomb is located across the Nile from modern-day Luxor in the northern portion of the Theban necropolis, at the entrance to the Valley of the Kings. The area, referred to as Dra' Abu el-Naga', has long been felt to be the burial place of kings and private individuals of the 17th and early 18th dynasties.
According to archaeologists, the "remnants of the tomb consist of the lower part of a small mud-brick pyramid surrounded by an enclosure wall, also built of mud bricks." In front of the pyramid lies a burial shaft where the toppled head of a life-size royal sandstone statue of the pharaoh was found. The pyramid-complex and the burial shaft is unequivocally that of Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, according to Dr Daniel Polz, the lead excavator and deputy director of DAI.
Other discoveries included "a small funerary chapel of a private individual" adjacent to the pyramid, but outside the enclosure wall. The inner walls of the chapel were decorated with depictions of its owner, as well as his name and titles. According to these inscriptions the tomb owner, Teti, was a "treasurer" or "chancellor" of the king. On one of the walls, there remains a large cartouche (the royal name-ring) showing the name of king Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef. The 17th Dynasty at the end of the Second Intermediate Period - the era between the Middle and New Kingdoms - was characterized by the rule of the Hyksos, foreign invaders of an Asiatic origin who ruled in the northern part of Egypt contemporaneously with the kings of the 17th Dynasty in Thebes.
Following numerous military campaigns against them, the Hyksos rulers were eventually expelled from Egypt by Kamose, the last king of the 17th Dynasty and his brother, Ahmose, the first king of the 18th Dynasty which saw a unified Egypt rise to unprecedented wealth and power. It is believed that Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, one of the immediate predecessors of Kamose and Ahmose, could actually have been their great-grandfather. Experts said the discovery of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef's tomb, the first find of a royal tomb from the 17th Dynasty, along with its location, architecture and contents, could shed new light on the hitherto unknown burials of those Egyptian kings who laid the foundations of Egypt's "Golden Age" - the New Kingdom.
[The] German archaeologist Polz and his team were led to the tomb by information obtained from a 3000-year-old papyrus and the works of an American archaeologist who made reference to the tomb, but never found it himself. The papyrus mentioned an attempt by robbers to plunder the royal tomb by digging a tunnel from another tomb belonging to a private individual. The robbers, however, failed to reach the royal tomb. Then in the 19th Century, another group of robbers found the royal tomb, removed the golden casket and sold it without disclosing where they found it-the casket eventually ended up in the British Museum in London.
Polz and his team also found what appeared to be evidence of the removal of two obelisks from the tomb of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef. The obelisks were reportedly removed from the tomb in 1881 on orders of the then French director of the Council of Antiquities in Cairo, who wanted them transferred to old Cairo Museum. Unfortunately, the boat with the heavy obelisks sank in the Nile, some 10 kilometres from Luxor. Polz and his team plan to continue excavation work on the tomb in October to discover what lies in another room believed to be located below the burial shaft.

[edit] Literature

  • Kim Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. by Museum Tuscalanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-421-0, 394-95 File 17/2 (list of sources)

[edit] References

  1. ^ W.M.F. Petrie: Abydos I. EEF Memoir 22. London 1902, pl. LVII
  2. ^ Reconstruction of the walls on Digital Egypt
  3. ^ W. M. Petrie Flinders: Koptos, London 1896, Pl.8
  4. ^ W.M.F. Petrie: Abydos I. EEF Memoir 22. London 1902, pp. 28, 41-2, pl. LV (3-5, 8), LVI; W.M.F. Petrie. with a chapter by F.Ll. Grifftith M.A., F.S.A.: Abydos II. EEF Memoir 24. London 1903, pp. 35, pl. XXXII, 3-4
  5. ^ W.M.F. Petrie: Abydos I. EEF Memoir 22. London 1902, pp. 28, 41-2, pl. LVII

[edit] External links

Preceded by
Intef VI
Pharaoh of Egypt
Seventeenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Intef VIII


Categories: Pharaohs of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt

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