lunes, 30 de noviembre de 2009

List of pharaohs

List of pharaohsOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from List of Pharaohs)


Ancient Egyptian History Ankh.svg

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3000 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

Note that the dates given must be regarded in most instances as approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

[edit] Existing primary old lists of pharaohs

The texts of existing primary old lists of pharaohs are incomplete:

Archibald Sayce gave comparative data on several of these lists in his book The Ancient Empires of the East (1884)[1], in addition to the lists found in Herodotus, Diodorus, Eratosthenes, and even a fanciful list found in "the Arabic writers". Yet another fanciful list that does not appear in Sayce, is found in the Book of Sothis that George Syncellus attributed to Manetho.

[edit] Legendary period

In the texts of the Palermo, Turin and Manetho king lists, there are different versions of names of 8 god kings that ruled Egypt before Menes.[2]

Turin King List Function
Ra Sun
Geb Earth
Osiris Death
Set Chaos
Horus Sky god
Thoth Moon
Ma'at Order & Truth
Horus Sky & kings
Second dynasty of gods Members unknown
3 Achu-Dynasties Unknown
Dynasty of Disciples of Horus Unknown
Manetho Egyptian Equivalent
Hephaistos Ptah
Helios Ra
Sosis or Agathosdaimon (perhaps Sothis?) Shu
Kronos Geb
Osiris Osiris
Typhon Set
Horus Horus
Dynasty of Halfgods Number unknown
30 Kings from Memphis (combined rule of 1790 years)
10 Kings from This (350 years)
Menes Legendary unifier of Egypt

[edit] Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period, when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms, and the First and Second Dynasties

[edit] Early dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Tiu[3] ?
Thesh[3] ?
Hsekiu[3] ?
Wazner[3] c. 3100 BC?

[edit] Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Comments Dates
Scorpion I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?
Iry-Hor kingship uncertain c. 3150 BC?
Ka[4][5] c. 3100 BC
King Scorpion Potentially pronounced Serqet, but uncertain; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3100 BC
Narmer The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[6] c. 3100 BC

[edit] First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3050 BC to 2890 BC, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)

Name Comments Dates
Menes Potentially the same person as Narmer, Hor-Aha, Scorpion King, or any combination of the three. contingent upon identity
Hor-Aha Arguably the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt.[7] c. 3050 BC
Djer 41 years
Merneith Regent for Den
Djet 23 years
Den 14 to 20.1 years
Anedjib 10 years
Semerkhet 9 years
Qa'a 2916?–2890

[edit] Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[8] 2890–?
Raneb[9] 39 years
Nynetjer[10] 40 years
Wneg[11] 8 years
Senedj[12] 20 years
Seth-Peribsen[13] 17 years
Sekhemib-Perenmaat
Khasekhem(wy)[14][15] ?–2686 BC 17 to 18 years

[edit] Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (26302151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

[edit] Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sanakhte 2686-2668
Djoser[16][17] Had the Step Pyramid constructed by Imhotep[18] 2668–2649
Sekhemkhet[19] 2649–2643
Khaba 2643–2637
Huni[20] 2637–2613

[edit] Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
Sneferu Built the Bent Pyramid, which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body. 2613–2589
Khufu Greek form: Cheops. Built the great pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another. 2589–2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) Believed to have created the Sphinx at Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash however this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip). 2566–2558
Khafra Greek form: Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. 2558–2532
here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
Menkaura Greek form: Mycerinus. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. 2532–2503
Shepseskaf 2503–2498
Djedefptah
here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho

[edit] Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Userkaf 2498–2491
Sahure 2490–2477
Neferirkare Kakai 2477–2467
Shepseskare Isi 2467–2460
Neferefre 2460–2453
Nyuserre Ini 2453–2422
Menkauhor Kaiu 2422–2414
Djedkare Isesi 2414–2375
Unas 2375–2345

[edit] Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Teti 2345–2333
Userkare 2333–2332
Meryre Pepi I 2332–2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278
Neferkare Pepi II Possible unto 2224 which would explain the following 4 kings. 2278–2184
Neferka Only mentioned in the redford. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. 2200–2199
Nefer Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day according to Turin Canon 2197–2193
Aba Reigned for 4 years and 2 months. Reign dates don't follow Turin Canon. Highly unlikely. 2193–2176
Unknown king Unknown king attested here
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[21] Uncertain pharaoh. 2184
Neitiqerty Siptah This king may have been confused in later years as a supposed female ruler Nitocris.[22] 2184–2181

[edit] First intermediate period

The First Intermediate Period is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

[edit] Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html)

Name Comments Dates
Neferkara I -
Netjerkare -
Menkare -
Neferkare II -
Neferkara Nebi -
Djedkara Shemai -
Neferkara Khendu -

Some authorities place here Merenhor
Neferkamin Seneferka -
Nikara -
Neferkara Tereru -
Neferkahor -
Neferkara Pepyseneb -
Neferkamin Anu -
Qakare Ibi - 2169-2167
Neferkara II - 2167-2163
Neferkawhor Khuwihap - 2163-2161
Neferirkara - 2161-2160

[edit] Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160– ?
Meribre Khety II - ?
Neferkare III - ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) - ?
Setut - ?
Wakhare Khety I - ?
Merykare - ?
Wankhare Khety II - ?
Menethoupe I - ?
Wankhare Khety III - ?
Khety II - ?
Khety II's daughter - ?
Merikare's daughter - ? –2130

[edit] Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130– ?
Neferkare IV ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) ?
Merykare ?
— Courtnie ? –2040

[edit] Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Sehertawy Intef I 2134–2117
Wahankh Intef II 2117–2069
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III 2069–2060

[edit] Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

[edit] Eleventh Dynasty Continued

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[23] Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060–2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[24] 2010–1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[25] 1997–1991

[edit] Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[26][27] 1991–1962
Kheperkare Senusret I[28] (Sesostris I) 1971–1926
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[29] 1929–1895
Khakheperre Senusret II[30] (Sesostris II) 1897–1878
Khakaure Senusret III[31] (Sesostris III) Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[32] 1860–1815
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[33] Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso. 1815–1807
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[34] A rare female ruler. 1807–1803

[edit] Second intermediate period

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia

[edit] Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri. 1803–1799 4 yrs.
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 Yrs.
Amenemhat 1795–1792
Sehetepre ? –1790
Iufni ?
Seankhibre ?
Semenkare ?
Sehetepre ?
Sewadjkare ?
Nedjemibre 7 months ?
Khaankhre Sobekhotep I ?
Renseneb 4 months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I? c. 1775?
Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. c. 5 to 7 yrs.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Compare Wegaf c. 1767
Khendjer Minimum 4 yrs and 3 months c. 1765
Imyremeshaw ?
Antef V ?
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months c. 1755
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730
Khahotepre Sobekhotep V c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years & 8 months c. 1725–1714
Merneferre Ay 23 years & 8 months c. 1714–1691
Merhotepre Ini 2 years & 2 months ?
Sankhenre Sewadjtu ?
Mersekhemre Ini ?
Sewadjkare Hori ?

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Dudimose I c. 1654
Dudimose II ?
Senebmiu ?
Mentuhotep V ?
Senaaib ?

[edit] Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois, that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? - ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? - ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? - ?
? - ?
—djefare ? - ?
—webenre - c. 1690

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi[35]
Yakubher[35] ?

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

[edit] Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Salitis
Sakir-Har - ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi - 40 Years or more
Khamudi - ? -1535

[edit] Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local native kingdom from Thebes who ruled Egypt for between 80 and 100 years, according to Kim Ryholt.

Name Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuti (Sekhemresementawy) 3 yrs
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy) 16 yrs
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) 1 yr
Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre) 1 yr
Nebiriau I (Sewadjenre) 26 yrs
Nebiriau II
Semenre
Bebiankh (Seuserenre) 12 yrs
(Sekhemre Shedwast)
- The names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered. Their identity is uncertain -

Some sources include as many as six more names –

[edit] Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhau - 1650- ?
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemreshedtawy - 3 years
Intef VI Sekhemrewepmaat - -
Intef VII Nebkheperre -
Intef VIII Sekhemreheruhirmaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhau - -
Tao I the Elder (ie: Senakhtenre) - c. 1558
Tao II the Brave (Seqenenre) - c. 1558-1554
Kamose - 1554-1549

[edit] New Kingdom

Queen Hatshepsut as Osiris. Hatshepsut was one of best known Egyptian queens.

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

[edit] Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I Successor to Kamose, above. 1550-1525
Djeserkare Amenhotep I - 1525-1504
Aakheperkare Thutmose I - 1504-1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II - 1492-1479
Menkheperre Thutmose III Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant. 1479-1425
Maatkare Hatshepsut The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer[36]. 1473-1458
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II - 1425-1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV - 1400-1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King His name means Lord of the truth is Ra. He ruled Egypt at the peak of her glory, his mortuary temple was the largest ever built, but was destroyed by Rameses II to build his own temple. Thought to be the grandfather of Tutankhamun 1390-1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism). His original name means "Amun is pleased." 1352-1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten 1334-1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. 1333-1324
Kheperkheperure Ay - 1324-1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye). 1320-1292

[edit] Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[37] - 1292-1290
Menmaatre Seti I[38] - 1290-1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great[39] The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279-1213
Banenre Merenptah[40] A stele describing his campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the first known reference to the Israelites. 1213-1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse - 1203-1200
Userkheperure Seti II[41] - 1203-1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[42] - 1197-1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.[43] 1191-1190

[edit] Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1069 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakht - 1190-1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. 1186-1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV - 1155-1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V - 1149-1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI - 1145-1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII - 1137-1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII - 1130-1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX - 1129-1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[44] - 1111-1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[45] Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.[46] 1107-1077

[edit] Third intermediate period

The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

[edit] Twenty-first Dynasty

The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC

Name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed[47] Also known as Smendes I 1077-1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu - 1051-1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) - 1047-1001
Usermaatre Amenemope - 1001-992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) - * ( Osochor ) 992-986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun - 986-967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) - 967-943

[edit] Twenty-second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 720 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I Commonly believed to be the biblical Shishaq 943-922
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I - 922-887
Heqakheperre Sheshonq II - 887-885
Takelot I - 885-872
Hedjkheperre Harsiese A rebel, at Thebes 880-860
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II - 872-837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III - 837-798
Shoshenq IV - 798-785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami - 785-778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V - 778-740
Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV - 740-720

[edit] Twenty-third Dynasty

The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 836 to c.735 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837-813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826-801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I - 812-811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801-795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795-767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III - 773-765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun - 765-762

[edit] The Libu

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 805-795
? - 795-780
Niumateped - 780-755
Titaru - 763-755
Ker - 755-750
Rudamon - 750-745
Ankhor - 745-736
Tefnakht - 736-732

[edit] Twenty-fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte - 732-725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720

[edit] Late period

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

[edit] Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752-721
Neferkare Shabaka - 721-707
Djedkaure Shebitku Synchronism with Sargon II of Assyria establishes his accession date at 707/706 BC 707-690
Khuinefertemre Taharqa - 690-664
Bakare Tantamani lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664-653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC-4th cent. AD).

[edit] Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.[48]

Name Comment Dates
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) - 672664 BC
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) - 664610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II) - 610595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) - 595589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) - 589570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis) - 570526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) - 526525 BC

[edit] Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Metsuire Cambyses - 525521 BC
Smerdis the Usurper - 522521 BC
Setutre Darius I the Great - 521486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424423 BC
Darius II
424404 BC

[edit] Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404398 BC

[edit] Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I Also known as Nepherites 398393 BC
Psammuthes - 393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) - 393380 BC
Nefaarud II - 380 BC

[edit] Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) Also known as Nekhtnebef 380362 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) - 362360 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) - 360343 BC

[edit] Thirty-first Dynasty

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338336 BC
Khababash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338335 BC
Darius III Codomannus Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336332 BC

[edit] Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great) Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317309 BC

[edit] Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency):

Name Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter (Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy) Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy) - 288246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/81-ca. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/3-222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205-199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199-185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207186 BC 204180 BC
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163-145 BC
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145-144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145-131 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 127-116 BC
Cleopatra III Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored 109107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Restored 10788 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored again 8881 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81-80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 8058 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled 5855 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 5551 BC
Cleopatra VII Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 5130 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 5147 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48-47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 4744 BC
Ptolemy XV Caesarion Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra 4430 BC

[edit] Rome

Cleopatra VII had an affair with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar, and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide in 30 BC (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be the emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman emperors.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Dynastic Tables: Kings of Egypt
  2. ^ Problems with Manetho's "Reign of the Gods" Page with different versions of god king lists
  3. ^ a b c d Breasted (1909) p.36
  4. ^ Rice (1999) p.86
  5. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp.57f.
  6. ^ Shaw (2000) p.196
  7. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp70-71
  8. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83-84
  9. ^ Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
  10. ^ Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  11. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp 87-88
  12. ^ Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p.27
  13. ^ [1] Seth-Peribsen
  14. ^ [2] King Khasekhem
  15. ^ [3] King Khasekhemwy
  16. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  17. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  18. ^ Verner (2001)
  19. ^ Clayton (1994) p.32
  20. ^ Clayton (1994) p.42
  21. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
  22. ^ Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
  23. ^ Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), p. 16-52
  24. ^ Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23-25
  25. ^ Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25-26
  26. ^ [4] Amenemhat I
  27. ^ Grajetzki (2006) pp.28-35
  28. ^ Murnane (1977) p.2
  29. ^ Murnane (1977) p.7
  30. ^ Murnane (1977) p.9
  31. ^ Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
  32. ^ Grajetzki (2006) pp.56-61
  33. ^ "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)". Digital Egypt for Universities. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/amenemhatIV.html.
  34. ^ Grajetzk (2006) pp.61-63
  35. ^ a b Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period
  36. ^ Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen
  37. ^ "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesi.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  38. ^ "Sety I Menmaatre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/setyi.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  39. ^ "King Ramesses II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesii.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  40. ^ "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/merenptah.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  41. ^ "Sety II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/setyii.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  42. ^ "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/siptah.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  43. ^ "Tausret". http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn19/08tausret.html.
  44. ^ Grimal (1992) p.291
  45. ^ "Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah". http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesxi.html. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
  46. ^ Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309.
  47. ^ Cerny p.645
  48. ^ "Late Period Kings". http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/lateperiodkings.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.

[edit] References

  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1994) Chronicle of the Pharaohs: the reign-by-reign record of the rulers and dynasties of ancient Egypt Thames and Hudson, New York, ISBN 0500050740
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71-76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt., Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8

[edit] External links

Categories: Pharaohs | Egypt-related lists | Lists of monarchs

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario en la entrada

Correo Vaishnava

Archivo del blog