miércoles, 20 de enero de 2010

Psamético II

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Archivo:Egypte louvre 037.jpg
Psamético II. Louvre.

Neferibra-Psametiko, Psamético II, fue hijo de Necao II y debió reinar unos seis años, de 595 a 589 a. C., como afirman Sexto Julio Africano y Heródoto, aunque Eusebio de Cesarea narra que Psammutis reinó diecisiete años.

La actividad de este soberano se volcó principalmente en la campaña contra Kush, donde reinaban los descendientes de los soberanos de la dinastía XXV. La expedición se produjo en 592 a. C., partiendo de Elefantina se internó hasta la tercera catarata del Nilo luchando contra el rey Antalani, o su hermano y sucesor Aspelta. Después de la victoria de las tropas egipcias, integradas principalmente por mercenarios libios, se replegó al norte de la primera catarata.

Un papiro, con escritura demótica, expone el aplazamiento de un viaje de Neferibra a Canaán, probablemente justificado por la estipulación de tratados comerciales y la tentativa de recuperar, al menos en parte, la influencia perdida después de la derrota de Necao II contra el ejército babilónico.

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Testimonios de su época [editar]

El Obelisco de Montecitorio fue erigido en época de Psametico II en Heliópolis. El emperador romano César Augusto ordenó llevarlo a Roma para usarse como un gran reloj solar en el Campo de Marte. Se derrumbó en el siglo X. El papa Sixto V ordena levantarlo en 1587. Benedicto XIV lo restaura y lo vuelve a erigir en el siglo XVIII. Actualmente se encuentra en la Piazza di Montecitorio, en Roma.

Archivo:Vasi-Bergung-Obelisk.jpg
Obelisco de Psamético II en Montecitorio, Roma (Italia). Grabado de Giuseppe Vasi.
  • Erigió dos obeliscos en Heliópolis (Arnold)
  • Fundó el templo de Hibis, oasis de El-Jarga (Arnold)
  • El templo en El-Mahalla el-Kubra (Arnold)
  • Añadidos al templo de Neit en Sais (Arnold)

Inscripciones con el nombre del rey:

  • Estela nº UC14536 (Museo Petrie)
  • Fragmentos hallados en File (Arnold)
  • Bloques en El-Naharya, 15 km al sur de Sais (Arnold)
  • Bloques de templos encontrados en: Abidos, Karnak, Elefantina (Arnold)
  • Mencionado en inscripciones grabadas en roca cerca de Konossos y Elefantina (de Morgan)
  • Fragmento de una puerta de bronce en Menfis (Petrie/Mackay/Wainwright)

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


Y5
Aa1 F34


Srxtail2.GIF
mn ḫ ib (Menjib)
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
F12 D36
usr ˁ (Usera)
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
S29 F35 N17
N17
s nfr t3uy (Senefertauy)
El que embellece las Dos Tierras (Egipto)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 F35 F34


Hiero Ca2.svg

nfr ib rˁ (Neferibra)
Bueno es el corazón de Ra
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

Q3 S29 G17 V13
V31


Hiero Ca2.svg

p s m t k (Psametiko)
Compañero de Metik


Referencias [editar]

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Necao II
Faraón
Dinastía XXVI
Sucesor:
Apries


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Psamtik II
Psammetichus II
File:Psamtik II museo britânico.jpg
Fragmentary statue head of Psamtik II
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 595–589 BC, 26th dynasty
Predecessor Necho II
Successor Apries
Children Apries, Ankhnesneferibre
Father Necho II
Mother Khedebarbenet
Died 589 BC

Psamtik II (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was a king of the Saite based Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 BC-589 BC). His prenomen, Neferibre, means "Beautiful is the Heart of Re."[1] He was the son of Necho II.

Contents


[edit] Campaigns and battles

Psamtik II led a foray into Nubia in 592 BC, marching as far south as the Third or even the Fourth Cataract of the Nile according to a contemporary stela from Thebes (Karnak) which dates to Year 3 of this king's name and refers to a heavy defeat that was inflicted upon the kingdom of Kush.[2] A well-known graffito inscribed in Greek on the left leg of the colossal seated statue of Ramesses II, on the south side of the entrance to the temple of Abu Simbel, records that:

"When King Psammetichus (ie. Psamtik II) came to Elephantine, this was written by those who sailed with Psammetichus the son of Theocles, and they came beyond Kerkis as far as the river permits. Those who spoke foreign tongues (Greek and Carians who also scratched their names on the monument) were led by Potasimto, the Egyptians by Amasis.[3]

Kerkis was located near the Fifth Cataract of the Nile "which stood well within the Cushite Kingdom."[4]


This was the first confrontation between Egypt and Nubia since the reign of Tantamani. A Kushite king named Anlamani had revived the power of the kingdom of Napata. Psamtik II's campaign was likely initiated to destroy any future aspirations the Kushites may have had to reconquer Egypt. The Egyptian army advanced to Pnubs (Kerma) and the capital city of Napata in a series of fierce battles, where they looted its temples and destroyed the royal Kushite statues.[5] The Kushite capital was sacked under the reign of the native Kushite king Aspelta who was the younger brother of Anlamani and the son of Senkamanisken. The Year 3 Karnak stela is dated to II Shemu day 10 of Psamtik II's reign and states that:

The army that your Majesty sent to Nubia has reached the land of Pnubs....Nubians from all parts [of Kush] had arisen against him, their hearts full of anger when he attacked those who had rebelled against him there; because he was furious at those who had arisen against him. His Majesty took part in the combat as soon as he reached the battle. The rebels capitulated before a single arrow was unleashed against them....Those who tried to flee did not succeed and were brought back as prisoners: four thousand two hundred men.[6]
File:Victory stela of Psamtik II at Kalabsha by John Campana.jpg
Psamtik II's victory stela from Kalabsha which records his campaign against Kush

As a result of Psamtik's devastating campaign, Kush's power was crushed, and its kings from Aspelta onwards lost any opportunity of ever regaining control of Egypt. Instead, the Nubian rulers decided to shift their capital further south from Napata to the relative safety of Meroë. Curiously, however, Psamtik II does not appear to have capitalized on his victory. His troops retreated back to the First Cataract, and Elephantine continued to be the southern border of Egypt.

An outcome of this campaign was the deliberate destruction of monuments belonging to the 25th Dynasty Kushite kings in Egypt "by hacking out their names and the emblems of royalty from their statues and reliefs."[7] Later, in 591 BC, during the fourth year of his reign, Psamtik II launched an expedition into Palestine "to foment a general Levantine revolt against the Babylonians" that involved, among other, Zedekiah of the Kingdom of Judah.[8]

[edit] Monuments

Psamtik II was both a dynamic warrior pharaoh as well as a prolific builder in his brief 6 year reign. A significant Saite sanctuary was likely built by Psamtik II and his son Apries at the village of El-Mahalla El-Kubra which lies equidistant from Sebennytos and Behbeit El-Hagar in the Lower Nile Delta.[9] Officials from the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt observed "an extraordinary number of pharaonic building elements of granite and turquoise reused in modern buildings" at this site; this discovery was subsequently confirmed by Nestor L'Hôte in 1828 who counted more than 120 granite columns built into this village's mosque alone.[10][11] A 1.8 metre long fragment of red granite with the name of Psamtik II and a door lintel of Apries was also seen at El-Mahalla El-Kubra.[10]

Under Psamtik II's reign, a pair of more than 21.79 metre high obelisks were erected in the temple of Heliopolis; the first Emperor of Rome, Augustus later had one of the obelisks, which had probably been thrown down by the Persian invaders in 525 BC, brought to Rome in 10 BC.[10] Psamtik II also constructed a kiosk on Philae island. This kiosk today "represents the oldest known monument known on the island" and consisted "of a double row of four columns, which were connected by screen walls."[10]

File:The Temple of Hibis by Hanne Siegmeier.jpg
The Temple of Hibis was founded by Psamtik II at Kharga Oasis.

Psamtik II was also responsible for founding the Temple-house at Hibis in El-Kharga Oasis for the triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu with significant installations for the cult of Osiris.[12] This 19.5 X 26 metre temple was originally situated on the bank of an ancient lake which has now disappeared and its temple decorations were only completed under the Persian kings Darius I and possibly Darius II.[10] The Hibis temple consisted of a hypostyle hall with two-by-two papyrus capital columns, a hall of offerings, three sanctuaries in the rear section of the temple and a chapel at the side of the sanctuaries for the cult of Psamtik II.[13] The front of the temple house of Hibis featured:

"a pronaos with four papyrus bundle columns and screen walls. During the construction of the pranaos, the side walls were extended for the addition of a court[yard]. This extension, was, however, only carried out in the 30th Dynasty [by Nectanebo I and Nectanebo II.] The eight papyrus columns of the pronaos still show the New Kingdom type of open, bell-shaped capitals."[14]

A massive sandstone gateway through an outer enclosure wall still stands almost 5 metres tall and was constructed during the Ptolemaic or Roman periods.[15] Many inscriptions and decrees were carved on the gateway on a wide variety of topics such as taxation, inheritance, the court system and the rights of women, with the earliest text dating to 49 AD.[15]

The Temple of Psamtik II at Hibis was completely preserved until 1832 when its roof and portions of the temple were removed for the construction of an aluminium factory.[14] Only excavation work by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1910-1911 and restorations performed by the Egyptian Antiquities Service arrested its decline.[16] Today, the Hibis temple remains—together with the Oracle or Ammoneion of Siwa--as "the best preserved and best-documented temple of the early Egyptian Late Period and is therefore a primary monument to the history of [Egyptian temple] building."[14]

[edit] Successor

When Psamtik II died in 589 BC, he was succeeded by Apries who was his son by Queen Takhut, a Princess of Athribis. Psamtik and Queen Takhut were also the parents of Menekhubaste, a Priestess of Atum at Heliopolis, and Ankhnesneferibre, a God's Wife of Amun who was served in this powerful office in Upper Egypt through to the remainder of the Saite period in 525 BC when Egypt was conquered by the Persians.[17] The date of Psamtik II's death is mentioned in the Adoption stela of Ankhenesneferibre: Year 6, I Akhet day 23.[18]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 1994. p.195
  2. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia, Vol.9, 15th edition, 2003. p.756
  3. ^ king Psammetichus II (Psamtik II)
  4. ^ Britannica, p.756
  5. ^ Charles Bonnet & Dominique Valbelle, The Nubian Pharaohs, The American University in Cairo Press, 2005. p.166-167
  6. ^ Bonnet & Valbelle, pp.166-167
  7. ^ Brittanica, p.756
  8. ^ Alan B. Lloyd, 'The Late Period' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. Ian Shaw), Oxford Univ. Press 2002 paperback, p.381
  9. ^ Dieter Arnold, Temples of the Last Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1999. p.76
  10. ^ a b c d e Arnold, Temples, p.76
  11. ^ Nestor L'Hôte, Sur le Nil avec Champollion: Lettres, journaux et dessins inédits de Nestor L'Hôte: premier voyage en Egypte, 1828-1830
  12. ^ Arnold, op. cit., p.77
  13. ^ Arnold, Temples, p.77
  14. ^ a b c Arnold, Temples, p.79
  15. ^ a b Hibis
  16. ^ Arnold, op. cit., p.79
  17. ^ Christian Settipani, Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991. pp.153 & 161
  18. ^ Bonnet & Valbelle, p.170
Categories: 589 BC deaths | Pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt

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