jueves, 21 de enero de 2010

Psusenes I

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Ajeperra Pasebajaenniut Meryamon, o Psusennes I (en griego Ψουσέννης), es el tercer faraón de la dinastía XXI de Egipto, gobernó de ca. 1039 a 991 a. C.[1] durante el Tercer periodo intermedio de Egipto. Su nombre, Pasebajaenniut Meryamon, significa "La estrella que aparece en la ciudad (Tebas), amado de Amón".

Archivo:Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Máscara funeraria de Psusenes I.

Contenido


Biografía [editar]

La longitud precisa de su reinado es desconocida pues las diferentes copias de Manetón citan a Psusennes con un reinado de 46 años (Julio Africano) o 41 años (Eusebio de Cesarea). Sin embargo su reinado fue muy largo, y de él se conocen dos fechas separadas al menos 49 años.

Psusennes mantuvo una breve corregencia con su hijo, Amenemopet, de varios años, documentada en el vendaje de una momia, actualmente perdida, que vincula "el año 10º de Amenemopet al año 49º de Psusennes I" (Kitchen).

La tumba de Psusennes [editar]

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Archivo:NRT III e.jpg

Tumba de Psusenes I en Tanis (Egipto).

Pierre Montet descubrió en Tanis la tumba intacta de Psusennes (nº 3) en 1940. Desgraciadamente, debido a la gran humedad del lugar, en el Bajo Egipto, la mayor parte de los objetos de materiales orgánicos estaban descompuestos.

El sarcófago exterior de granito rojo y el intermedio de granito negro habían sido reutilizados o usurpados. La momia de Psusennes estaba dentro de un tercer ataúd de plata, algo inusual en el antiguo Egipto pues al tener que ser importada era un metal más escaso y valioso que el oro.

Un cartucho en el exterior del sarcófago rojo indicaba que originalmente había pertenecido al faraón Merenptah, el sucesor de Ramsés II de la dinastía XIX, de su enterramiento previo en el Valle de los Reyes. Los robos de tumbas fueron práctica habitual en el tercer periodo Intermedio y muchos sarcófagos quedaron desocupados.

Douglas Derry, del departamento de anatomía de la Universidad de El Cairo, examinó sus restos en 1940 y observó que Psusennes tenía los dientes muy cariados, y que el faraón sufrió de artritis, la cual probablemente le invalidó durante sus últimos años.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


E2
D40
m D37
D37
i mn
n
wsr f
F39
Z7 s N28
D36
m R19 t
O49


Srxtail2.GIF
k3 nḫt m dd imn usr f3u sḫˁ m u3st
(Kanajt emdedamonuserfause Jaemuaset)
Toro potente... que aparece en Tebas
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
G36
r
mn
n
W24 W24
W24
m i p
t
Q1 Z2s
O49
nb F9
F9
G45 f
N17
N17
V29 t M23 N5 m W19 p t
N1
ur mnu m ipt sut nb pḥty uˁf tauy u3ḥ nsit my rˁ m pt (-)
Grande y monumental en Karnak, Señor poderoso,
rey protector de las Dos Tierras, como Ra el Señor del cielo
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
F36 L1 Z3 D46
r
D40
T10
t
Z3 Z3 Z3 V15
D40
m m&f S42 m N17
N17
N17
N21 N21
nb
Z2
sm3 ḫpru dr pḏt 9 iṯi m sḫm f t3uy nbu (-)
El que une, vivifica y vence a los enemigos de Egipto (Nueve Arcos) y con su fuerza conquista toda la Tierra
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 O29V L1 C12 U21
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

ˁ3 ḫpr rˁ stp n imn
(Ajeperra setepenamon)
Grande es la manifestación de Ra, elegido de Amón
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

i mn
n
U7
G40 N14 N28
n
O49


Hiero Ca2.svg

p3 sb3 ḫˁ n niut mr imn
(Pasebajaenniut Meryamon)
La estrella que aparece en la ciudad (Tebas), amado de Amón


Notas [editar]

  1. Cronología según Málek, Arnold y Shaw; von Beckerath estima de 1044/43 a 994/93 a. C.

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
Neferjeres
Faraón
Dinastía XXI
Sucesor:
Amenemope

Categorías: Dinastía XXI | Faraones

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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Psusennes I
Pasebakhaenniut[1]
Archivo:Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered 1940 by Pierre Montet
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1047 – 1001 BC, 21st Dynasty
Predecessor Amenemnisu
Successor Amenemope
Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Wiay
Children Amenemope, Ankhefenmut, Istemkheb
Father Pinedjem I
Mother Henuttawy
Died 1001 BC
Burial NRT III, Tanis

Psusennes I, or [Greek Ψουσέννης], Psibkhanno or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I [Egyptian ḥr-p3-sb3-ḫˁỉ--nỉwt] was the third king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt who ruled between 1047 – 1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek version of his original name Pasebakhaemniut, which means "The Star Appearing in the City" while his throne name, Akheperre Setepenamun, translates as "Great are the Manifestations of Re, chosen of Amun."[2] He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his sister Mutnedjmet.

Contents


[edit] Burial

Professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes' intact tomb (No.3 or NRT III) in Tanis in 1940.[3] Unfortunately, due to its moist Lower Egypt location, most of the "perishable" wood objects were destroyed by water — a fate not shared by KV62, the tomb of Tutankhamun in the drier climate of Upper Egypt. However, the king's magnificent funerary mask was recovered intact; it proved to be made of gold and lapis lazuli and held inlays of black and white glass for the eyes and eyebrows of the object.[4] Psusennes I's mask is considered to be "one of the masterpieces of the treasure[s] of Tanis" and is currently housed in Room 2 of the Cairo Museum.[5] It has a maximum width and height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively.[6] The pharaoh's

"fingers and toes had been encased in gold stalls, and he was buried with gold sandals on his feet. The finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore an elaborate ring of gold and lapis lazuli or some other semiprecious stone."[7]

Psusennes' outer and middle sarcophagi had been recycled from previous burials in the Valley of the Kings through the state-sanctioned tomb-robbing that was common practice in the Third Intermediate Period. A cartouche on the red outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally been made for Pharaoh Merneptah, the nineteenth dynasty successor of Ramesses II. Psusennes, himself, was interred in an "inner silver coffin" which was inlaid with gold.[8] Since "silver was considerable rarer in Egypt than gold," Psusennes I's silver "coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypt's declining years."[9]

Dr. Douglass Derry, who worked as the head of Cairo University's Anatomy Department, examined the king's remains in 1940, determined that the king was an old man when he died.[10] Derry noted that Psusennes I's teeth were badly worn and full of cavities, and observed that the king suffered from extensive arthritis and was probably crippled by this condition in his final years.[11]

File:Jewellry of Psusennes I by John Campana.jpg
Gold and lapis lazuli collar of Psusennes I, Cairo Museum

[edit] Reign

Psusennes' precise reign length is unknown because different copies of Manetho's records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 Years. Some Egyptologists have proposed raising the 41 year figure by a decade to 51 years to more closely match certain anonymous Year 48 and Year 49 dates in Upper Egypt. However, the German Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln has suggested that all these dates should be attributed to the serving High Priest of Amun Menkheperre instead who is explicitly documented in a Year 48 record.[12] Jansen-Winkeln notes that "in the first half of Dyn. 21, [the] HP Herihor, Pinedjem I and Menkheperre have royal attributes and [royal] titles to differing extents" whereas the first three Tanite kings (Smendes, Amenemnisu and Psusennes I) are almost never referred to by name in Upper Egypt with the exception of one graffito and rock stela for Smendes.[13] In contrast, the name of Psusennes I's Dynasty 21 successors such as Amenemope, Osochor and Siamun appear frequently in various documents from Upper Egypt while the Theban High Priest Pinedjem II who was a contemporary of the latter three kings never adopted any royal attributes or titles in his career.[14]. Hence, two separate Year 49 dates from Thebes and Kom Ombo[15] could be attributed to the ruling High Priest Menkheperre in Thebes instead of Psusennes I but this remains uncertain. Psusennes I's reign has been estimated at 46 years by the editors of the Handbook to Ancient Egyptian Chronology.[16] Psusennes I must have enjoyed cordial relations with the serving High Priests of Amun in Thebes during his long reign since the High Priest Smendes II donated several grave goods to this king which was found in Psusennes II's tomb.

File:Psusennes.jpg
Silver antropid coffin of Psusennes I, Cairo Museum

During his long reign, Psusennes built the enclosure walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu.[17]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Pasebakhaenniut
  2. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994., p.178
  3. ^ Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unravelling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Company Inc., New York, 1994. p.145
  4. ^ Lorna Oakes, Pyramids, Temples and Tombs of Ancient Egypt, Hermes House, 2003. p.216
  5. ^ Alessandro Bongioanni & Maria Croce (ed.), The Treasures of Ancient Egypt: From the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Universe Publishing, a division of Ruzzoli Publications Inc., 2003. p.422
  6. ^ Bongioanni & Croce, p.422
  7. ^ Brier, pp.146-147
  8. ^ Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs: A complete Guide to Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson 1987. p.123
  9. ^ Hobson, p.123
  10. ^ Douglass E. Derry, Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte" Vol. 40 (1940), pp.969-970
  11. ^ Brier, p.147
  12. ^ Karl Jansen-Winkeln, ZAS 119, p.26
  13. ^ Karl Jansen-Winkeln, "Dynasty 21" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.226-227, 229
  14. ^ Hornung, Krauss & Warburton, p.229
  15. ^ K.A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 BC), third edition (Aris & Philips, 1996), pp.421 & 573
  16. ^ Hornung, Krauss & Warburton, p.493
  17. ^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books 1992. pp.315-317

[edit] Further reading

  • Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Co, (1994), pp. 146-147.
  • Jean Yoyotte, BSSFT 1(1988) 46 n.2.
Categories: Pharaohs of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt

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Category:Psusennes I

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Psusennes I's funerary mask bears no inscriptions and was made "in two pieces from a gold sheet less than one milimetre thick; details such as the royal cobra and the beard were made separately and attached to the [king's] mask." (Source: Jaromir Malek, Egypt: 4000 Years of Art, Phaidon Press Limited, 2003. p.275)

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