jueves, 14 de enero de 2010

Osorkon III

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Contenido






Usermatra Setepenamón - Osorkon, u Osorkon III, faraón de la dinastía XXIII del antiguo Egipto desde c. 787 a 759 a. C.

Según Manetón Osojo (Julio Africano), u Osorton (Eusebio de Cesarea), fue el segundo rey de Tanis, lo llamaron Heracles, y gobernó Egipto durante ocho o nueve años.

Fue el célebre príncipe heredero Osorkon (B), sumo sacerdote de Amón. Hijo de Takelot II y la reina Karomama III Merytmut (Kitchen).

Reinó en el Alto Egipto durante 28 años, después de derrotar a las fuerzas rivales de PadibastetSheshonq IV que se habían resistido tenázmente a la autoridad de su padre. Osorkon gobernó los últimos cinco años de su reinado en corregencia con su hijo, Takelot III, según la inscripción nº 13 del nilómetro de Karnak. y

El príncipe Osorkon compuso un documento denominado la "Crónica", inscrito en el pórtico Bubastita de Karnak, consistente en un conjunto de textos que narran sus actividades en Tebas.

La titulatura de Osorkon III era: Usermaatra Setepenamón, Osorkon Saast Meryamón, Necher-Heqauaset (von Beckerath: Cronología p. 194)

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


E2
D40
m N28 R19


Srxtail2.GIF
k3 nḫt ḫˁ m u3st (Kanajt Jaemuaset)
Toro potente, que surge en Tebas
Nombre de Nebty:
G16

st ib t3uy (setibtauy)
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8

ms nṯru (mesnecheru)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 F12 C10 M17 mn
n
U21
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

usr m3ˁt rˁ stp n imn (Usermaatra Setepenamón)
Poderosa es la justicia (Maat) de Ra, Elegido de Amón
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

M17 Y5
N35
U6 H8
Z1
Q1 V4 Aa18 M17 D21
V31
n


Hiero Ca2.svg

usirkn s3 3st mry imn (Usirkon Saast Meryamón)
Osorcón, Hijo de Isis, Amado de Amón


Predecesor:
Sheshonq IV
Faraón
Dinastía XXIII
Sucesor:
Takelot III


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Osorkon III
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 28 years, 23rd Dynasty
Predecessor Shoshenq VI
Successor Takelot III
Father Takelot II
Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon IIIPharaoh of Egypt in the 8th Century BC. He was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by his Great Royal WifeKamama-Merytmut II. Prince Osorkon B is best attested by his Chronicle—which consists of a series of texts documenting his activities at Thebes—on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak.[1] He later reigned as king Osorkon III in Upper Egypt for twenty-eight years after defeating the rival forces of Pedubast I/Shoshenq VI who had apparently resisted the authority of his father here. Osorkon ruled the last five years of his reign in coregency with his son, Takelot III, according to Karnak Nile Level Text No. 13.[2] Osorkon III's formal titulary was long and elaborate: Usermaatre Setepenamun, Osorkon Si-Ese Meryamun, Netjer-Heqa-waset.[3] Si-Ese was

Contents


[edit] Accession

Osorkon III's precise accession date is unknown. Various Egyptologists have suggested it may have been from around the mid-790s BC to as late as 787 BC.[4] The issue is complicated by the fact that Prince Osorkon B did not immediately declare himself king after his successful conquest of Thebes and defeat of Shoshenq VI. This is evidenced by the fact that he dated this seminal event to Year 39 of Shoshenq III rather than Year 1 of his reign. Osorkon III may, therefore, have waited for a minimum of one or two years before proclaiming himself as a Pharaoh of the Theban-based 23rd Dynasty. Osorkon may also have been motivated to defeat or pacify any remaining supporters of the Pedubast I/Shoshenq VI rival faction in other regions of Upper Egypt whether they were in Elephantine, the Western Desert Oasis region—where Pedubast I is monumentally attested—or elsewhere in order to consolidate his position. Hence, Year 1 of Osorkon III is likely equivalent to Year 1 or Year 2 of Shoshenq IV instead, rather than Year 39 of Shoshenq III.

[edit] Identity

Osorkon III is attested by numerous impressive donation stelae and stone blocks from Herakleopolis Magna through to Thebes. He is generally thought to have been a contemporary of the Lower Egyptian 22nd Dynasty kings, Shoshenq IV, Pami, and the first decade of Shoshenq V's reign. Osorkon III's chief wife was Queen Karoadjet but his second wife was named Tentsai. A stela of Prince Osorkon B calls his spouse Tent[...] with part of the name being lost. The latter name can be rendered as either Tentsai or Tentamun. Significantly, however, both men have a daughter called Shepenupet.

Secondly, according to Ōhshiro Michinori,[5] Anthony Leahy,[6] and Karl Jansen-Winkeln,[7] an important donation stela[8] discovered in 1982 at Ṭihnā al-Ǧabal (ancient Akoris) reveals that Osorkon III was once a High Priest of Amun in his own right. The document explicitly calls Osorkon III, the High Priest of Amun. Osorkon III, thus, was almost certainly the High Priest Osorkon B, who defeated his father's opponents at Thebes in Year 39 of Shoshenq III, as Leahy notes. This theory has been accepted by many Egyptologists today, including Jürgen von Beckerath,[9] Karl Jansen-Winkeln,[10] Gerard Broekman,[11] and Aidan Dodson, among others, with the notable exception of Kenneth Kitchen.[12] Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton sum up the evidence by noting:

That Osorkon B is the same person as King Osorkon III is indicated by the fact that the former's last appearance as High Priest of Amun seems to directly precede Osorkon III's assumption of the throne, reinforcing a stela from Tehna[13] which mentions the latter with the additional title of High Priest—an unusual occurrence.

Osorkon probably lived into his eighties, which explains why he appointed his son Takelot as the junior coregent to the throne in his final years. He would have been in failing health by this time. Osorkon III's coregency with Takelot III is the last attested royal coregency in ancient Egyptian history. Later dynasties from Nubia, Sais, and Persia all ruled Egypt with a single king on the throne.

Karnak Nile Level Texts No. 6 and 7,[14] dated to Year 5 and 6 of Osorkon III, calls his mother the "Chief Queen Kamama Merymut."[15] Similarly, Prince Osorkon B's mother was identified as Queen Kamama Merymut II, wife of Takelot II.[16] The slightly different renderings of this Queen's name almost certainly refers to the same person here: Osorkon B/III.

[edit] Consorts

According to Kenneth Kitchen, Osorkon III's chief consort, Queen Karoadjet, was the mother of Shepenupet I, the God's Wife and Divine Adoratrice of Amun, while his lesser wife Tentsai was the mother of Osorkon III's two sons: Takelot III and Rudamun.[17] Shepenupet I outlived both her half-brothers as the serving God's Wife of Amun at Thebes and survived into the reign of the Nubian ruler, Shebitku, where she is depicted on the small temple Osiris-Heqa-djet in the Amun precinct of Karnak, which was partially decorated by this king.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Caminos 1958.
  2. ^ von Beckerath 1966:50.
  3. ^ von Beckerath 1999:194, 195.
  4. ^ Kitchen [1996]:§ 448.
  5. ^ Ōhshiro 1999.
  6. ^ Leahy 1990:192.
  7. ^ Jansen-Winkeln 1995:138
  8. ^ The Paleological Association of Japan inc. (Egyptian Committee) 1995:301–305, plate 116.
  9. ^ von Beckerath 1995.
  10. ^ Jansen-Winkeln 1995.
  11. ^ Broekman 2002:174.
  12. ^ Kitchen [1996], § BB.
  13. ^ Dodson & Hilton 2004:226.
  14. ^ von Beckerath 1966:49.
  15. ^ Kitchen [1996]:§ 74.
  16. ^ Kitchen [1996]:§ 290.
  17. ^ Kitchen [1996]:§ 309.

[edit] References

  • Broekman, Gerardus P. F. (2002). "The Nile Level Records of the Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasties in Karnak: A Reconsideration of Their Chronological Order". Journal of Egyptian Archæology 88: 163–178. doi:10.2307/3822342.
  • Caminos, Ricardo Augusto (1958). The Chronicle of Prince Osorkon. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum.
  • Dodson, Aidan M.; Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Cairo, London, and New York: The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. ISBN 977-424-878-3.
  • Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (1995). "Historische Probleme der 3. Zwischenzeit". Journal of Egyptian Archæology 81: 129–149. doi:10.2307/3821812.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A. ([1996]). The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC) (3rd ed.). Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited.
  • Leahy, M. Anthony (1990). "Abydos in the Libyan Period". in M. Anthony Leahy (ed.).. Libya and Egypt c1300–750 BC. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, and The Society for Libyan Studies. pp. 155–200.
  • 大城 道則 [Ōhshiro Michinori] (1999). "The Identity of Osorkon III: The Revival of an Old Theory (Prince Osorkon = Osorkon III)". 古代オリエント博物館紀要 [Bulletin of the Ancient Orient Museum] 20: 33–49. [article language is English]
  • 学協会エジプト委員会 [The Paleological Association of Japan inc. (Egyptian Committee)] (1995). Akoris: Report of the Excavations at Akoris in Middle Egypt 1981–1992. 京都 [Kyōto]: 晃洋書房 [Kōyō Shobō].
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen (1966). "The Nile Record Level Records at Karnak and Their Importance for the History of the Libyan Period (Dynasties XXII and XXIII)". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 5: 43–55.
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen (1995). "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Libyerzeit: II. Die Zeit der Osorkon-Chronik". Göttinger Miszellen 144: 9–13.
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (2nd ed.). Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.


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