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Pianjy

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De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre



Contenido






Menjeperra Pianjy, también denominado Piye, fue un rey Kushita, el fundador de la dinastía XXV de Egipto que gobernó desde la ciudad de Napata, en Kush, de ca. 747 a 716 a. C.[1] durante el Tercer periodo intermedio de Egipto.

Archivo:GD-EG-Alex-MuséeNat065.JPG
Imagen de Shepenupet II, Divina adoratriz de Amón, la hija de Pianjy.
Archivo:Gebel Barkal Amun temple (B500).JPG
Ruinas del templo de Gebel Barkal.

Contenido

Biografía [editar]

La conquista de Egipto

Pianjy, gobernante de Kush, se aprovechó de las contiendas entre los gobernantes de Egipto para ampliar el poder Kushita más allá de Tebas, en Egipto central. Como reacción contra la creciente influencia Kushita en el Alto Egipto, Tefnajt, gobernante de Sais, constituyó una coalición entre los reyes locales de la región de Delta y convenció al aliado nominal de Pianjy, el rey Nimlot III de Hermópolis, a desertar y pasar a su bando.

Tefnajt mandó entonces al sur al ejército de la coalición y sitió Heracleópolis, donde su rey Peftyaubast y los mandatarios locales de Kush apelaron a Pianjy en su ayuda. Pianjy reaccionó rápidamente ante este conflicto (en su 20º año) reuniendo un ejército para invadir el Medio y Bajo Egipto. Visitó Tebas en época de la gran Fiesta de Opet lo que demuestra que controlaba realmente, por esta época, el Alto Egipto.

Pianjy después marchó al norte y logró la completa victoria en Heracleópolis, conquistando las ciudades de Hermópolis y Menfis entre otras, y recibió la sumisión de los reyes del Bajo Egipto inclusive de Iuput II, de Leontópolis, Osorcón IV de Tanis y su anterior aliado, Nimlot de Hermópolis, ciudad que cayó ante el rey de Kush después de sitiarla durante cinco meses.

La crónica de sus proezas militares está grabada en la estela de la Victoria, en Gebel Barkal.

Tefnajt tomó refugio en una isla en el Delta y se declaró vencido mediante una carta, pero se negó a rendir homenaje personalmente al gobernante Kushita.

Pianjy navegó hacia el sur, desde Tebas, y volvió a su patria, Kush, para nunca volver ya a Egipto. A pesar de la campaña triunfante de Pianjy en el Delta, su autoridad sólo se extendió hacia el norte de Tebas, hasta la región occidental de los oasis del desierto, y Heracleópolis donde Peftyaubast gobernó como rey vasallo de Kush. Los reyes locales del Bajo Egipto, fundamentalmente Tefnajt, quedaban libres para hacer lo que ellos quisieron sin el control de Pianjy.

Fue Shabako, el sucesor de Pianjy, quien posteriormente rectificó esta poco satisfactoria situación atacando Sais y derrotando al sucesor de Tefnajt, Bakenrenef.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Horus:
G5


F36 N16
N16


Srxtail2.GIF
sm3 t3uy (Sematauy)
El que une las Dos Tierras (Egipto)
(Louvre, Estela 100)
Nombre de Nebty:
G16
F31 U25
msy ḥmt.ut (Mesi hemut)
Mesihemut
(Louvre, Estela 100)
Nombre de Hor-Nub:
G8
O34
I1
N29
N35
W24 w A1 Z3
sˁš3 qnu (Sasha qenu)
Sashaqenu
(Louvre, Estela 100)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

Hiero Ca1.svg

N5 mn L1


Hiero Ca2.svg

mn ḫpr rˁ (Menjeperra)
Estable es la manifestación de Ra
(Louvre, Estela 100)
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

p i i


Hiero Ca2.svg

p y (py)
Piye
(Louvre, Estela 100)
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


Hiero Ca1.svg

p S34 i i


Hiero Ca2.svg

p ˁnḫ y (pianjy)
Pianjy
(Museo de Jartum, Obelisco, 426)

Notas [editar]

  1. Cronología según Aston, Grimal, Arnold y Shaw.

Referencias [editar]

Enlaces externos [editar]


Predecesor:
(Dinastía XXIII - Dinastía XXIV) - Kashta
Faraón
Dinastía XXV
Sucesor:
Shabako


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Contenido






Piye
Piankhi
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 752–721 BC, 25th Dynasty
Predecessor Kashta
Successor Shabaka
Burial el-Kurru
Monuments Stelae at Gebel Barkal

Piye, (Arabic: بعنخي‎) (whose name was once transliterated as Piankhi the Nubian)[2] (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, Sudan. His predecessor as king of Kush, Kashta, almost certainly exercised a strong degree of influence over Thebes prior to Piye's accession because Kashta managed to have his daughter, Amenirdis I, adopted as the Heiress to the serving God's Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I, before the end of his reign.

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[edit] Piye's Conquest of Egypt

As ruler of Nubia and Upper Egypt, Piye took advantage of the squabbling of Egypt's rulers by expanding Nubia's power beyond Thebes into Lower Egypt. In reaction to this, Tefnakht of Sais formed a coalition between the local kings of the Delta Region and enticed Piye's nominal ally—king Nimlot of Hermopolis—to defect to his side. Tefnakht then sent his coalition army south and besieged Herakleopolis where its king Peftjaubast and the local Nubian commanders appealed to Piye for help. Piye reacted quickly to this crisis in his Year 20 by assembling an army to invade Middle and Lower Egypt and visited Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival which proves he effectively controlled Upper Egypt by this time. His military feats are chronicled in the Victory stela at Gebel Barkal.

Piye viewed his campaign as a Holy War, commanding his soldiers to cleanse themselves ritually before beginning battle. He himself offered sacrifices to the great god Amun.[3]

Piye then marched north and achieved complete victory at Herakleopolis, conquering the cities of Hermopolis and Memphis among others, and received the submission of the kings of the Nile Delta including Iuput II of Leontopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis and his former ally Nimlot at Hermopolis. Hermopolis fell to the Nubian king after a siege lasting five months. Tefnakht took refuge in an island in the Delta and formally conceded defeat in a letter to the Nubian king but refused to personally pay homage to the Kushite ruler. Satisfied with his triumph, Piye proceeded to sail south to Thebes and returned to his homeland in Nubia never to return to Egypt. Despite Piye's successful campaign into the Delta, his authority only extended northward from Thebes up to the western desert oases and Herakleopolis where Peftjaubastet ruled as a Nubian vassal king. The local kings of Lower Egypt especially Tefnakht were essentially free to do what they wanted without Piye's oversight. It was Shabaka, Piye's successor, who later rectified this unsatisfactory situation by attacking Sais and defeating Tefnakht's successor Bakenranef at Sais, in his second regnal year.

[edit] Reign Length

Piye adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre during his reign and was much more passionate (in common with many kings of Nubia) about the worship of the god Amun. He revitalised the moribund Great Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal, first built under Thutmose III of the New Kingdom by employing numerous sculptors and stone masons from Egypt to renew the temple. He was once thought to have also used the throne name 'Menkheperre' ("the Manifestation of Ra abides") but this prenomen has now been recognised as belonging to a local Theban king named Ini instead who was a contemporary of Piye. Piye's Highest known Date was long thought to be the Year 24 III Akhet day 10 date mentioned in the "Smaller Dakhla Stela" (Ashmolean Museum No.1894) from his reign. This sandstone stela measures 81.5 cm by 39.5 cm and was discovered from the Sutekh temple at Mut al-Kharib in the Western Desert Oasis town of Dakhla, according to a JEA 54(1968) article by Jac Janssen. However, in early 2006, the Tomb of the Southern Vizier Padiamonet, son of Pamiu, was discovered in the third Upper Terrace of Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary Temple at Deir El-Bahari by the Polish Mission for the Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. It was carved approximately 8 metres into the rock face of the temple cliff in an area where several other Third Intermediate Period and Late Period burials have also been discovered. According to this article in the Polish news site Nauka w Polsce (Science & Scholarship in Poland), Padiamonet's tomb contains a burial inscription which is dated to Year 27 of Piye.[1] Dr. Zbigniew Szafrański, Director of the Polish Mission, states regarding the find:

The tomb had been plundered. We don't know whether in antiquity or in more recent times; however we have found fragments of the mummy. On the basis of the inscriptions found in the tomb we suspect that buried there was the vizier Padiamonet who died in the 27th Year of the rule of the Pharaoh Piankhi (Piye) from the 25th Dynasty.[4]

Szafrański further notes that the Mummy cartonnage (a cover in which the mummy is placed) found in Padiamonet's burial chamber featured "beautiful, ornate, colourful pictures [in which] you can read in hieroglyphs the name of the Vizier. It is also visible on the fragments of the [mummy] bandages."[4]

The Great Temple at Gebel Barkal contains carved relief scenes depicting Piye celebrating a Heb Sed Festival but there is some doubt among scholars as to whether it portrayed a genuine Sed Feast or was merely Anticipatory. Under the latter scenario, Piye would have planned to hold a Jubilee Festival in this Temple in his 30th Year—hence his recruitment of Egypt's Artisans to decorate it—but died before this event took place.

While Piye's precise reign length is still unknown, this new find and his subsequently higher Year 27 date affirms the traditional view that Piye lived into his Year 30 and celebrated his Jubilee that year. Kenneth Kitchen in his book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, has suggested a reign of 31 years for Piye based on the Year 7 donation stela of a certain Shepsesre Tefnakht whom he viewed as Piye's opponent. However, this stela is now believed to refer instead to a second later Saite king called Tefnakht II from the late Nubian era because it is almost similar in style and format to a newly revealed donation stela—from a private collection—which is dated to Year 2 of Necho I's reign. (This new document was analysed by Olivier Perdu in CRAIBL 2002) Hence, no reliance can be placed on the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht to determine Piye's reign length. However, Dr Szafrański's recent discovery suggests that the Gebel Barkal Heb Sed scenes are genuine and supports the conventional view that Piye enjoyed a reign of roughly three full decades. More recently, in the February 2008 issue of National Geographic, Robert Draper wrote that Piye ruled for 35 years and invaded all of Egypt in his 20th regnal year in about 730 BC[5]; however, no archaeological source gives Piye a reign of more than 31 years at present.

Piye was buried in a pyramid (the first pharaoh to receive such an entombment in more than 500 years)[6] alongside his four favorite horses at el-Kurru near Gebel Barkal, a site that would come to be occupied by the tombs of several later members of the dynasty.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/piy.html Piy (Piankhi)
  2. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropædia, Vol.9, 15th edition, 2003. p.489 cf. Brittanica's comments on Piye, the correct name for Piankhi
  3. ^ "The Black Pharaohs", by Robert Draper, National Geographic, February 2008.
  4. ^ a b Blog: March 6, 2006, accessed September 9, 2107 (English translation by A. Bak)
  5. ^ Brittanica, p.817
  6. ^ National Geographic magazine February 2008 pg. 38

[edit] Bibliography

  • Roberto B. Gozzoli: The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt during the First Millennium BC (ca. 1070-180 BC), Trends and Perspectives, London 2006, S. 54-67 ISBN 0-9550256-3-X
  • Jac Janssen, "The Smaller Dakhla Stele", JEA 54(1968) pp. 165–171
  • Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed. (1996) Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd.
  • Olivier Perdu, "La Chefferie de Sébennytos de Piankhy à Psammétique Ier", RdE 55 (2004), pp. 95–111
  • Szymon Łucyk, "Polscy archeolodzy odkryli grób wezyra w świątyni Hatszepsut" or 'Polish Archaeologists have discovered the tomb of a Vizier in Hatshepsut's temple' in Nauka w Polsce, February 22, 2006 [2]

[edit] External links

Categories: 721 BC deaths | Kush | Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt

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