martes, 1 de diciembre de 2009

Cesarión

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De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre



Archivo:Dendera Cesarion.jpg
Cleopatra y Cesarión en un bajorrelieve del templo de Dendera.

Ptolomeo XV Filópator Filómetor César (en griego: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ' Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ), o simplemente Ptolomeo XV César,[1] apodado Cesarión, "Pequeño César" (Καισαρίων) (23 de junio de 47 a. C. - Agosto de 30 a. C.), fue el último rey de la dinastía ptolemaica del Antiguo Egipto, y pretendiente al trono imperial de Roma.

Hijo de Cleopatra VII, última reina de Egipto, y de Julio César. Reinó al lado de su madre tras el asesinato de su tío Ptolomeo XIV Teos Filópator II, supuestamente envenenado por su hermana Cleopatra, la madre de Cesarión. Compitió con Octavio por el gobierno de Roma. Su reinado transcurre del 2 de septiembre de 44 a. C. hasta el año 30 a. C. Fue el último soberano egipcio de la dinastía ptolemaica.

Contenido




Biografía [editar]

Su madre le dio a luz en Alejandría el 23 de junio del año 47 a. C., traslandandose a Roma, donde vivió con César desde el año 46 a. C. El 15 de marzo del 44 a. C. César es asesinado antes de reconocerle como heredero, y Cleopatra regresa a Alejandría, donde el 2 de septiembre lo nombra corregente de Egipto tras asesinar a Ptolomeo XIV. En el 41 a. C. Cleopatra se alía con Marco Antonio para conseguir su apoyo, considerando que su hijo había ganado el derecho a ser rey de Roma cuando César fue deificado oficialmente el 1 de enero del 42 a. C.

A finales del 34 a. C. en las Donaciones de Alejandría, Cesarión fue reconocido corregenteRey de Reyes y Faraón de Egipto, a la vez que se le proclamaba hijo y heredero legítimo de César. Esta declaración fue la causa de la ruptura definitiva en las relaciones de Marco Antonio con Octavio, a quien inquietaba el hecho de que Cesarión hubiera sido anunciado como el hijo legítimo de César y su heredero: su poder descansaba fundamentalmente en el hecho de ser considerado como el heredero de César por adopción, lo cual le garantizaba el apoyo del pueblo romano y la lealtad de las legiones. subordinado a su madre, y también nombrado

Octavio invadió Egipto el año 30 a. C. y estaba decidido a asesinar a Cesarión para ser el único sucesor de Julio César. Cleopatra intentó proteger a su hijo enviándolo al puerto de Berenice, en el mar Rojo, para que viajese a India donde su tío Festus era mercader, pero el joven fue traicionado por su maestro particular, Rhodon, y capturado. Los centinelas romanos le degollaron en una mazmorra por orden de Octavio: Demasiados césares fue la justificación dada.

Tras el suicidio de Marco Antonio y Cleopatra, Octavio tomó el poder considerándose, ahora sí, como familiar y sucesor de Cesarión.

Titulatura [editar]

Titulatura Jeroglífico Transliteración (transcripción) - traducción - (procedencia)
Nombre de Nesut-Bity:
nswt&bity

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Q3
R8 F44 W24X1 N41
D40
Q3
X1
V28 U21
N35
D4
N36
C2 C12 S42 S34 n


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iuˁ (n) p3 nṯr nti nḥm stp n ptḥ ir mȝˁ t rˁ sḫm ˁnḫ n imn
(Iuaenpanechernetinehem Setepenptah Irimaatra Sejemanjenamon)
Heredero del dios Sóter, Elegido de Ptah, Quien hace lo que ama Ra, Imagen viviente de Amón
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


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Q3
X1
V4 E23 G17 M17 M17 S29


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p t u l m y s
(Ptulmys)
Ptolomeo
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


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Q3
X1
V4 E23
Aa15
M17 M17 S29 D&d Z7t
n
f
N29 M17 M17 S29 r
z


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ptulmys ḏdtun.f qysrs
(Ptulmys dyedtunef qeysers)
Ptolomeo, llamado Cesar
Nombre de Sa-Ra:
G39 N5


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Q3
X1
Z7
E23
Aa15
M17 M17 S29
Z7
D&t W24
F51A
V31
M17s M17s
z
l
z
S34 D&t&N17 Q3
X1
V28 Q1 X1
H8
mr


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ptulmys ḏtunf qysrs anḫ ḏt mr ptḥ ˁst
(Ptulmys dyedtunef qeysers Anjdyet Meryptahast)
Ptolomeo, llamado Cesar, Sempiterno, Amado de Isis y Ptah

Véase también [editar]

Notas [editar]

  1. Los egiptólogos discrepan en el número de lágidas que tras la muerte de Ptolomeo VI llegaron a reinar realmente y en el número que le dan a cada uno de ellos como rey. Para evitar la confusión que esto causa, los Ptolomeos se pueden identificar inequívocamente mediante los epítetos griegos que se les atribuyeron (Sóter II, Alejandro I, Filópator, Neo-Dioniso, etc.).

Referencias [editar]

Bibliografía [editar]


Predecesor:
Cleopatra VII y Ptolomeo XIV
Faraón
con Cleopatra VII
Sucesor:
Octavio (Emperador romano)
Egipto (provincia romana)
Categorías: Faraones | Dinastía Ptolemaica | Ejecutados


CaesarionOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



File:Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg
A relief of Cleopatra VII and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt
Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by nickname. The number given here is the present consensus; but there has been some disagreement in the nineteenth century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower, but the same epithet.

Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Καισαρίων, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar, Kaisaríōn (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt from September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC, when he was killed on orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and the only known son of Julius Caesar, for whom he was named.

Contents




[edit] Life

Ptolemy XV, sometimes referred to as "Ptolemy Caesar", most commonly known by his nickname Caesarion, was born in Egypt in 47 BC and was the son of Julius Caesar. He spent two of his early years, from 46–44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests. Cleopatra VII hoped that her son would eventually succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic as well as Egypt. After Caesar's assassination on March 15, 44 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three, although he was King in name only, with Cleopatra VII keeping actual authority to herself.

During the tense period of time leading up to the final conflict between Mark Antony and Octavian (future Emperor Augustus), Antony, who at that time shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, granted various eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra (in 34 BC). Caesarion was proclaimed "King of Kings." Most threatening to Octavian (whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son), Antony declared Caesarion to be Caesar's true son and heir. These proclamations, known as the Donations of Alexandria, caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra.

When Octavian invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra VII sent Caesarion, then seventeen years old, to the Red Sea port of Berenice for safety, with possible plans of an escape to India. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Mark Antony had committed suicide prior to Octavian's entry into the capital; Cleopatra followed his example by committing suicide on August 12, 30 BC. Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning the boy to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear. Octavian had Caesarion executed there, with the words "Two Caesars is one too many". No events concerning his death have been documented. Due to his young age of 17 years it is supposed he was executed by strangulation.

Octavian then assumed absolute control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt. In lists of the time Octavian himself appears as a Pharaoh and the successor to Caesarion.

  • In art, Caesarion is thought to be depicted in a partial statue found in the harbor of Alexandria by Franck Goddio in 1997.
  • He is also thought to be portrayed in relief, though as an adult pharaoh, with his mother on the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, above.

[edit] Egyptian names

In addition to his Greek name and nicknames, Caesarion also had a full set of royal names in the Egyptian language:

  • Iwapanetjer entynehem
  • Setepenptah
  • Irmaatenre
  • Sekhemankhamun

These are usually translated as:

  • "Heir of the God who saves"
  • "Chosen of Ptah"
  • "Carrying out the rule of Ra"
  • "Living Image of Amun"

Source: Chronicle of the Pharaohs, by Peter Clayton (1994), ISBN 0500050740

[edit] References in popular media

  • Caesarion appears in the 1963 film Cleopatra. He is portrayed as a sweet child, and a loyal co-ruler with his mother. However, history is altered when he appears to be about 12-years-old, instead of 17, when he died.
  • In the Asterix comic book Asterix and Son, at the end of the book Caesarion is revealed as being the baby boy that Asterix had found on his doorstep and had been looking after. (The original French title of the graphic novel is Le fils d'Asterix .)
  • The 2005-07 BBC/HBO television historical fiction miniseries Rome features a version of Caesarion as a minor character. The part is played by two young actors, the older of the two being Max Baldry, and the younger, Nicolo Brecci. In the show, there is a strong presumption that he is actually the son of the soldier Titus Pullo by Cleopatra, who seduces Pullo in an attempt to become pregnant at about the same time she begins her affair with Caesar. When Antony and Cleopatra fall, Pullo and his comrade Lucius Vorenus slip through Octavian's border guards with the child, though Vorenus is severely wounded. In a departure from history, Pullo reports to Octavian that Caesarion is dead, when in fact he has been brought to Rome under an assumed name to live with Pullo. Though there is no direct dialogue about his age, the character is visibly far younger than seventeen years.
  • The novel Cleopatra's Heir by Gillian Bradshaw, portrays Caesarion as an epileptic (like his father Julius Caesar), who, after being wounded during an attack by Roman soldiers, is left for dead. Escaping his funeral pyre, he flees, but has a seizure. He is discovered by an Egyptian merchant, who cares for him. Over time, Caesarion turns from a haughty prince to a decent young man, and ultimately, he must decide whether or not to give up his old life in exchange for a new one in peace.
  • In the novel Antony and Cleopatra by Colleen McCullough, Caesarion is portrayed as a precociously wise young man who deplores many of his mother’s and Antony’s actions. He does, however, remain loyal to them until death.
  • Caesarion appears as the main character in a novel called "La stanza sull'acqua" written by Roberto Pazzi and published in 1991 by Garzanti in Italy. The book has been translated in many countries.
  • In the adventure / romance novel Hail Caesar: Vol. II. / Brotherhood of Men, by Roman de Caesar, the sarcophagus of Caesarion as well as the sarcophagus of Alexander the Great, which were discovered and spirited away by the French archeologist Francois Fauxchoux during Napoleon’s Egyptian Campaign, are main focal points of the story.

[edit] External links

Caesarion
Born: 47 BC Died: 30 BC
Preceded by
Cleopatra VII Philopator
Pharaoh of Egypt
44–30 BC
with Cleopatra VII
Succeeded by
Egypt annexed by Rome

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