miércoles, 16 de diciembre de 2009

Piedra de Rosetta

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De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre



Archivo:Pierre de Rosette.jpg
Fotografía de la Piedra de Rosetta tomada en el Museo Británico.

La piedra de Rosetta contiene un texto en tres tipos de escritura y su gran importancia radica en haber sido la pieza clave para comenzar a descifrar los jeroglíficos de los antiguos egipcios. Gracias a Thomas Young, Jean-François Champollion y otros estudiosos de la escritura del antiguo Egipto, hoy puede ser considerada como una joya en la historia del lenguaje y la transcripción.

Es una estela de granito negro, con una inscripción bilingüe (griego y egipcio) de un decreto del faraón Ptolomeo V, en tres formas de escritura: jeroglífica, demótica y griego uncial (con letras mayúsculas); contiene noventa y dos renglones, los catorce primeros escritos con signos jeroglíficos, los siguientes 32 en caracteres demóticos, y los últimos 54 en griego; tiene algo más de un metro de alto, 72 cm de ancho y 27 cm de grosor; pesa 756 kg.

Contenido




Historia [editar]

Fue descubierta el 15 de julio de 1799 por el capitán francés Pierre-François Bouchard en el pueblo egipcio del delta del Nilo denominado Rosetta (también llamada Rashid), cuando las tropas capitaneadas por Napoleón Bonaparte se encontraban guerreando contra las de Gran Bretaña en las tierras de Egipto.

La piedra iba a ser transportada a Francia por los miembros del Instituto de Egipto, pero los ejércitos ingleses, que habían desembarcado en la primavera de 1801, la confiscaron pese a las enardecidas protestas de Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire ante el general británico Hutchinson. La piedra de Rosetta se exhibe en el Museo Británico de Londres desde 1802. En el lado izquierdo lleva una inscripción con pintura blanca que dice «Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801» ('Capturada en Egipto por el ejército británico en 1801'), y en el derecho otra inscripción, «Presented by King George III» ('Presentada por el rey Jorge III').

Sólo una vez fue sacada la piedra del Museo Británico, en 1972, con ocasión del 150 aniversario del descifrado de los jeroglíficos, siendo expuesta en el Museo de Louvre por algunas semanas.

Hay una reproducción de la piedra Rosetta en el Distrito de Figeac (Lot), la ciudad natal de Champollion, y es obra del artista Joseph Kossuth, mide 11 x 8.5 m, es de granito negro traído desde Zimbabwe, cuyos tres peldaños llevan inscritos los textos en jeroglífico, demótico y griego. La plaza lleva el nombre de Place des écritures ('Plaza de las escrituras'). En el Museo Egipcio de El Cairo también se exhibe una copia.

Contenido [editar]

El texto escrito en griego antiguo comienza así: «El nuevo rey, habiendo recibido el reino de su padre...» Narra una sentencia de Ptolomeo V, describiendo varios impuestos que había revocado, ordenando además que la estela se erigiese y que el decreto fuese publicado en el lenguaje de los dioses (jeroglíficos) y en la escritura de la gente (demótica).

Tradicionalmente se pensaba que el decreto escrito en la Piedra de Rosetta fue ideado en demótico por los sacerdotes de Menfis hacia el año 197 a. C. Pero los últimos estudios de expertos en demótico han comprobado que la inscripción original fue compuesta en griego y traducida posteriormente al demótico, aunque a veces poco fielmente.

Archivo:Rosetta Stone.jpg
Piedra de Rosetta. Grabado.

Traducción de un fragmento del texto de la piedra de Rosetta [editar]

Bajo el reinado del joven, que recibió la soberanía de su padre, señor de las insignias reales, cubierto de gloria, el instaurador del orden en Egipto, piadoso hacia los dioses, superior a sus enemigos, que ha restablecido la vida de los hombres, Señor de la Fiesta de los Treinta Años, igual que Hefaistos el Grande, un rey como el Sol, gran rey sobre el Alto y el Bajo País, descendiente de los dioses Filopáteres, a quien Hefaistos ha dado aprobación, a quien el Sol le ha dado la victoria, la imagen viva de Zeus, hijo del Sol, Ptolomeo, viviendo por siempre, amado de Ptah. En el año noveno, cuando Aetos, hijo de Aetos, era sacerdote de Alejandro y de los dioses Soteres, de los dioses Adelfas, y de los dioses Evergetes, y de los dioses Filopáteres, y del dios Epífanes Eucharistos, siendo Pyrrha, hija de Filinos, athlófora de Berenice Evergetes; siendo Aria, hija de Diógenes, canéfora de Arsínoe Filadelfo; siendo Irene, hija de Ptolomeo, sacerdotisa de Arsínoe Filopátor, en el (día) cuarto del mes Xandikos (o el 18 de Mejir de los egipcios).

Véase también [editar]

Enlaces externos [editar]


Categorías: Literatura del Antiguo Egipto | Inscripciones | Textos multilingües

Rosetta Stone - InglésOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



File:Rosetta Stone BW.jpeg

The Rosetta Stone is a multilingual stele, stele 3 in the series for Ptolemy III, IV, V that allowed linguists to begin the process of hieroglyph decipherment.

File:Rosetta Stone.jpg

Illustration of the Rosetta Stone

File:Rosetta Stone.JPG

The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum

The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era steleEgyptian languagehieroglyphic and Demotic) and one in classical Greek. It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta and contributed greatly to the deciphering of the principles of hieroglyph writing in 1822 by the British scientist Thomas Young and the French scholar Jean-François Champollion. Comparative translation of the stone assisted in understanding many previously undecipherable examples of hieroglyphic writing. The text on the stone is a decree from Ptolemy V, describing the repeal of various taxes and instructions to erect statues in temples. Two Egyptian-Greek multilingual steles predated Ptolemy V's Rosetta Stone: Ptolemy III's Decree of Canopus, 239 BC, and Ptolemy IV's Decree of Memphis, ca 218 BC. with carved text made up of three translations of a single passage: two in scripts (

The renaissance translation of Egyptian hieroglyphs in the early 1800s promulgated the immediate three-language translation of the tri-lingual Behistun Inscription in cuneiformphysical sciences of describing fossil evolution. scripts, by scaffolding work on the cliff-wall face, before the mid-1800s. Both hieroglyphs and cuneiform were starting a translation revolution, as were the

The Rosetta Stone is 114.4 centimetres (45.0 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 centimetres (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 centimetres (11.0 in) thick.[1] It is unfinished on its sides and reverse. Weighing approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb), it was originally thought to be granite or basalt but is currently described as granodiorite of a dark pinkish-gray color.[2] The stone has been on public display at The British Museum since 1802.

Contents

[hide]


[edit] History of the Rosetta Stone

[edit] Modern-era discovery

In preparation for Napoleon's 1798 campaign in Egypt, the French founded the Institut de l'Égypte in Cairo which brought 167 scientists and archaeologists to the region. French ArmyCaptain Pierre-François Bouchard discovered the stone sometime – the sources are not specific – in mid-July 1799 ( engineer July 15 or July 19), while guiding construction work at Fort Julien near the Egyptian port city of Rashid (Rosetta). The Napoleonic army was so awestruck by this unheralded spectacle that, according to a witness, "It halted of itself and, by one spontaneous impulse, grounded its arms." (As quoted by Robert Claiborne, The Birth of Writing [1974], p. 24.) After Napoleon returned in 1799, 167 scholars remained behind with French troops which held off British and Ottoman attacks. In March 1801, the British landed on Aboukir Bay and scholars carried the Stone from Cairo to Alexandria alongside the troops of Jacques-Francois Menou. French troops in Cairo capitulated on June 22, and in Alexandria on August 30.

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt. De Menou refused to hand them over, claiming they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, refused to relieve the city until de Menou gave in. Newly arrived scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton agreed to check the collections in Alexandria and found many artifacts that the French had not revealed.[citation needed]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials as a property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries — referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria — than turn them over. Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as biology specimens would be the scholars' private property. De Menou regarded the stone as his private property and hid it.

How exactly the Stone came to British hands is disputed. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who escorted the stone to Britain, claimed later that he had personally seized it from de Menou and carried it away on a gun carriage. Clarke stated in his memoirs that a French scholar and an officer had quietly given up the stone to him and his companions in a Cairo back street. French scholars departed later with only imprints and plaster casts of the stone.

Turner brought the stone to Britain aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne in February 1802. On March 11, it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries of London and Stephen Weston played a major role in the early translation. Later it was taken to the British Museum, where it remains to this day. Inscriptions painted in white on the artifact state "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" on the left side and "Presented by King George III" on the right.

[edit] Translation

File:Rosetta Stone International Congress of Orientalists ILN 1874.jpg
Experts inspecting the Rosetta Stone during the International Congress of Orientalists of 1874

In 1814, Briton Thomas Young finished translating the enchorial (demotic) text, and began work on the hieroglyphic script. From 1822 to 1824 the French scholar, philologist, and orientalist Jean-François Champollion greatly expanded on this work and is credited as the principal translator of the Rosetta Stone. Champollion could read both Greek and Coptic, and figured out what the seven Demotic signs in Coptic were. By looking at how these signs were used in Coptic, he worked out what they meant. Then he traced the Demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs. By working out what some hieroglyphs stood for, he transliterated the text from the Demotic (or older Coptic) and Greek to the hieroglyphs by first translating Greek names which were originally in Greek, then working towards ancient names that had never been written in any other language. Champollion then created an alphabet to decipher the remaining text.[3]

In 1858, the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania published the first complete English translation of the Rosetta Stone as accomplished by three of its undergraduate members: Charles R Hale, S Huntington Jones, and Henry Morton.[4]

[edit] Recent history

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since 1802. Toward the end of World War I, in 1917, the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

The Stone left the British Museum again in October 1972 to be exhibited for one month at the Louvre Museum on the 150th anniversary of the decipherment of hieroglyphic writings with the famous Lettre a M Dacier of Jean-François Champollion.

In July 2003, Egypt requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Dr. Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, told the press: "If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity." In 2005, Hawass was negotiating for a three-month loan, with the eventual goal of a permanent return.[5][6] In November 2005, the British Museum sent him a replica of the stone.[7] In December 2009 Hawass said that he would drop his claim for the return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months.[8]

[edit] Inscription

In essence, the Rosetta Stone is a tax amnesty given to the temple priests of the day, restoring the tax privileges they had traditionally enjoyed from more ancient times. Some scholars speculate that several copies of the Rosetta Stone must exist, as yet undiscovered, since this proclamation must have been made at many temples. The complete Greek portion, translated into English,[9] is about 1600–1700 words in length, and is about 20 paragraphs long (average of 80 words per paragraph):

In the reign of the new king who was Lord of the diadems, great in glory, the stabilizer of Egypt, but also pious in matters relating to the gods, superior to his adversaries, rectifier of the life of men, Lord of the thirty-year periods like Hephaestus the Great, King like the Sun, the Great King of the Upper and Lower Lands, offspring of the Parent-loving gods, whom Hephaestus has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, living image of Zeus, Son of the Sun, Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah;

In the ninth year, when Aëtus, son of Aëtus, was priest of Alexander and of the Savior gods and the Brother gods and the Benefactor gods and the Parent-loving gods and the god Manifest and Gracious; Pyrrha, the daughter of Philinius, being athlophorus for Bernice Euergetis; Areia, the daughter of Diogenes, being canephorus for Arsinoë Philadelphus; Irene, the daughter of Ptolemy, being priestess of Arsinoë Philopator: on the fourth of the month Xanicus, or according to the Egyptians the eighteenth of Mecheir.

THE DECREE: The high priests and prophets, and those who enter the inner shrine in order to robe the gods, and those who wear the hawk's wing, and the sacred scribes, and all the other priests who have assembled at Memphis before the king, from the various temples throughout the country, for the feast of his receiving the kingdom, even that of Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, which he received from his Father, being assembled in the temple in Memphis this day, declared: Since King Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoë, the Parent-loving gods, has done many benefactions to the temples and to those who dwell in them, and also to all those subject to his rule, being from the beginning a god born of a god and a goddess—like Horus, the son of Isis and Osirus, who came to the help of his Father Osirus; being benevolently disposed toward the gods, has concentrated to the temples revenues both of silver and of grain, and has generously undergone many expenses in order to lead Egypt to prosperity and to establish the temples... the gods have rewarded him with health, victory, power, and all other good things, his sovereignty to continue to him and his children forever.[10]

[edit] Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta Stone came to be used by philologists to describe any bilingual text with whose help a hitherto unknown language and/or script could be deciphered. For example, the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pāli, using the Kharoṣṭhī script), which enabled James Prinsep (1799–1840) to decipher the latter.

Later on, the term gained a wider frequency, also outside the field of linguistics, and has become idiomatic as something that is a critical key to the process of decryption or translation of a difficult encoding of information:

"The Rosetta Stone of immunology"[11] and "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of flowering time (fossils)".[12] An algorithm for predicting protein structure from sequence is named Rosetta@home. In molecular biology, a series of "Rosetta" bacterial cell lines have been developed that contain a number of TRNA genes that are rare in E. coli but common in other organisms, enabling the efficient translation of DNA from those organisms in E. coli.

"Rosetta" is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project.

"Rosetta" is the name of a "lightweight dynamic translator" distributed for Mac OS X by Apple. Rosetta enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using x86 processor.

Rosetta Stone is a brand of language learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington, VA, USA.

The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD. Its goal is a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

[edit] References

  1. ^ "The Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
  2. ^ "History uncovered in conserving the Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/h/history_uncovered_in_conservin.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  3. ^ Retrieved on 2008-25-6
  4. ^ See University of Pennsylvania, Philomathean Society, Report of the committee [C.R. Hale, S.H. Jones, and Henry Morton], appointed by the society to translate the inscript on the Rosetta stone, Circa 1858 and most likely published in Philadelphia. See later editions of circa 1859 and 1881 by same author, as well as Randolph Greenfield Adams, A Translation of the Rosetta Stone (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925.) The Philomathean Society holds relevant archival material as well as an original casting.
  5. ^ Charlotte Edwardes and Catherine Milner (2003-07-20). "Egypt demands return of the Rosetta Stone". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/1436606/Egypt-demands-return-of-the-Rosetta-Stone.html. Retrieved 2006-10-05.
  6. ^ Henry Huttinger (2005-07-28). "Stolen Treasures: Zahi Hawass wants the Rosetta Stone back—among other things". Cairo Magazine. http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=1238&format=html. Retrieved 2006-10-06. [dead link]
  7. ^ "The rose of the Nile". Al-Ahram Weekly. 2005-11-30. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/770/he1.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
  8. ^ [1] "Rosetta Stone row 'would be solved by loan to Egypt'" BBC News 8 December 2009
  9. ^ "Translation of the Greek section of the Rosetta Stone". Reshafim.org.il. http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/rosettastone.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
  10. ^ "Text of the Rosetta Stone". http://pw1.netcom.com/~qkstart/rosetta.html. Retrieved 2006-11-26.
  11. ^ The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2000-09-06). "International Team Accelerates Investigation of Immune-Related Genes". http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2000/ihwg.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-23.
  12. ^ Gordon G. Simpson, Caroline Dean (2002-04-12). "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of Flowering Time?". http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5566/285?ijkey=zlwRiv/qSEivQ&keytype=ref&siteid=sci. Retrieved 2006-11-23.

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